Advertisement

The Big Picture for Infant Development

Levels and Variations
  • Kurt W. Fischer
  • Anne E. Hogan
Part of the Perspectives in Developmental Psychology book series (PDPS)

Abstract

Infant behavior varies enormously; that is obvious from the chapters in this volume. Research clearly indicates that the maturity or sophistication of infant behavior varies widely from moment to moment and across contexts.

Keywords

Child Development Cognitive Development Developmental Level Functional Mechanism Subjective Contour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anisfeld, M. (1984). Language development from birth to three. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Bates, E., Benigni, L. Bretherton, I., Camaioni, L., & Volterra, V. (1979). The emergence of symbols. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bertenthal, B. I., Campos, J. J., & Haith, M. M. (1980). Development of visual organization: The perception of subjective contours. Child Development, 51, 1072–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom, L. (1973). One word at a time. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  5. Bruner, J. S. (1973). Beyond the information given: Studies in the psychology of knowing. New York: NortonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruner, J. S. (1982). The organization of action and the nature of adult-infant transaction. In M. Cranach & R. Harre (Eds.), The analysis of action. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bullinger, A. (1981). Cognitive elaboration of sensorimotor behavior. In G. Butterworth (Ed.), Infancy and epistemology. Hassocks, England: Harvester Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bullinger, A., & Chatillon, J.-F. (1983). Recent theory and research of the Genevan school. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 3: Cognitive development, ( J. H. Flavell & E. M. Markman, Eds., pp. 231–262 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Bullock, D., & Grossberg, S. (1988). Neural dynamics of planned arm movements: Emergent invariants and speed-accuracy properties during trajectory formation. Psychological Review, 95, 49–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell, S. B., & Werry, J. S. (1986). Attention deficit disorder (hyperactivity). In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders in children, ( 3rd ed., pp. 111–155 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Campos, J. J., & Bertenthal, B. I. (1987). Locomotion and psychological development in infancy. In F. Morrison, K. Lord, & D. Keating (Eds.), Advances in applied developmental psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Campos, J. J., Barrett, K. C., Lamb, M. E., Goldsmith, H. H., & Stenberg, C. (1983). Socioemotional development. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 2: Infancy and developmental psychobiology, ( M. M. Haith & J. J. Campos, Eds., pp. 783–915 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Canfield, R. (1988). Visual anticipation in infancy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Denver.Google Scholar
  14. Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: Birth to adulthood. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Caveness, W. F. (1962). Atlas of electroencephalography in the developing monkey (Macaca Mulatta). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  16. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge: M. I. T. Press.Google Scholar
  17. Chugani, H. T., & Phelps, M. E. (1986). Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18FDG Positron Emission Tomography. Science, 231, 840–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen, L. B., & Younger, B. A. (1984). Infant perception of angular relations. Infant behavior and development, 7, 37–47.Google Scholar
  19. Corrigan, R. (1977). Patterns of individual communication and cognitive development. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts Interational, 37(10), 5393B. (University Microfilms No. 77–7400).Google Scholar
  20. Corrigan, R. (1983). The development of representational skills. In K. W. Fischer (Ed.), Levels and transitions in children’s development. New Directions for Child Development, (No. 21, pp. 51–64 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  21. Corrigan, R., & Fischer, K. W. (1985). Controlling sources of variation in search tasks: A skill theory approach. In H. Wellman (Ed.), Children’s searching: The development of search skill and spatial representation, (pp. 287–318 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. de Rivera, J. (1981). The structure of anger. In J. de Rivera (Ed.), Conceptual encounter: A method for the exploration of human experience, (pp. 35–81 ). Washington, DC: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  23. Demos, E. V. (1988). Affect and the development of the self: New frontiers. In A. Goldberg (Ed.), Frontiers in self psychology: Progress in self psychology, (Vol. 3, pp. 27–53 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dreyfus-Brisac, C. (1978). Ontogenesis of brain bioelectrical activity and sleep organization in neonates and infants. In F. Falkner & J. M. Tanner (Eds.), Human growth 3: Neurobiology and nutrition, (pp. 157–182 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  25. Ekman, P., & Oster, H. (1979). Facial expressions of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 527–554.Google Scholar
  26. Emde, R., & Robinson, J. (1980). The first two months: Recent research in developmental psychobiology and the changing view of the newborn. In J. Call & R. Noshpitz (Eds.), Basic handbook of child psychiatry, (pp. 72–105 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Emde, R., Gaensbauer, T., & Harmon, R. (1976). Emotional expression in infancy: A biobehavioral study. Psychological Issues, (10, no. 37 ). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  28. Field, J., Muir, D., Pilon, R., Sinclair, M. & Dodwell, P.C. (1980). Infants’ orientation to lateral sound from birth to three months. Child Development, 51, 195–298.Google Scholar
  29. Fischer, K. W. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological Review, 87, 477–531.Google Scholar
  30. Fischer, K. W. (1983). Developmental levels as periods of discontinuity. In K. W. Fischer (Ed.), Levels and transitions in children’s development. New Directions for Child Development, (No. 21, pp. 5–20 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  31. Fischer, K. W. (1987). Relations between brain and cognitive development. Child Development, 57, 623–632.Google Scholar
  32. Fischer, K. W., & Bullock, D. (1984). Cognitive development in school-age children: Conclusions and new directions. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), The years from six to twelve: Cognitive development during middle childhood, (pp. 70–146 ). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fischer, K. W., & Corrigan, R. (1981). A skill approach to language development. In R. Stark (Ed.), Language behavior in infancy and early childhood, (pp. 245–273 ). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  34. Fischer, K. W., & Elmendorf, D. (1986). Becoming a different person: Transformations in personality and social behavior. In M. Perlmutter (Ed.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology, (Vol. 18, pp. 137–178 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Fischer, K. W., & Farrar, M. J. (1987). Generalizations about generalization: How a theory of skill development explains both generality and specificity. International Journal of Psychology, 22, 643–677.Google Scholar
  36. Fischer, K. W., Hand, H. H., Watson, M. W., Van Parys, M., & Tucker, J. (1984). Putting the child into socialization: The development of social categories in preschool children. In L. Katz (Ed.), Current topics in early childhood education, (Vol. 5, pp. 27–72 ). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  37. Fischer, K. W., & Jennings, S. (1981). The emergence of representation in search. Developmental Review, 1, 18–30.Google Scholar
  38. Fischer, K. W., & Lamborn, S. (in press). Sources of variations in developmental levels: Cognitive and emotional transitions during adolescence. To be published in A. de Ribaupierre (Ed.), Mechanisms of transition in cognitive and emotional development. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Fischer, K. W., & Pipp, S. L. (1984). Processes of cognitive development: Optimal level and skill acquisition. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Mechanisms of cognitive development, (pp. 45–80 ). New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  40. Fischer, K. W., Pipp, S. L., & Bullock, D. (1984). Detecting developmental discontinuities: Methods and measurement. In R. Emde & R. Harmon (Eds.), Continuities and discontinuities in development, (pp. 95–121 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  41. Fischer, K. W., Shaver, P., & Carnochan, P. (1988). From basic-to subordinate-category emotions: A skill approach to emotional development. In W. Damon (Ed.), Child development today and tomorrow. (pp. 107–136 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  42. Fischer, K. W., & Silvern, L. (1985). Stages and individual differences in cognitive development. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 613–648.Google Scholar
  43. Flavell, J. (1982). Structures, stages, and sequences in cognitive development. In W.A. Collins (Eds.), The concept of development. Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (Vol. 15 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  44. Fogel, A., & Thelen, E. (1987). Development of early expressive and communicative action: Reinterpreting the evidence from a dynamic systems perspective. Developmental Psychology, 23, 747–761.Google Scholar
  45. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  46. Goldman-Rakic, P. (1987). Connectionist theory and the biological basis of cognitive development. Child Development, 58, 601–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gopnik, A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1986). Relations between semantic and cognitive development in the one-word stage. Child Development, 57, 1040–1053.Google Scholar
  48. Gopnik, A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1987). The development of categorization in the second year and its relation to other cognitive and linguistic developments. Child Development, 58, 1523–1531.Google Scholar
  49. Grossberg, S. (1980). How does a brain build a cognitive code? Psychological Review, 87, 157.Google Scholar
  50. Haith, M. M., Bergman, T., & Moore, M. J. (1977). Eye contact and face scanning in early infancy. Science, 198, 853–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Haith, M. M., Hazan, C., & Goodman, G. S. (1988). Expectation and anticipation of dynamic visual events by 3.5-month-old babies. Child Development, 59, 467–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hayne, H., Rovee-Collier, C., & Perris, E. E. (1987). Categorization and memory retrieval by three-month-olds. Child Development, 58, 750–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hebb, D. O. (1955). Drives and the C. N. S. Psychological Review, 62, 243–254.Google Scholar
  54. Hofsten, C. von (in press). Transition mechanisms in sensorimotor development. In A. de Ribaupierre (Ed.), Transition mechanisms in child development. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Horn, J. L. (1976). Human abilities. Annual Review of Psychology, 27, 437–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ilg, F. L., & Ames, L. B. (1955). Child behavior from birth to ten. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  57. Izard, C. E. (1977). Human Emotions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  58. Izard, C. E. (1978). On the ontogenesis of emotions and emotion-cognition relationships in infancy. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The development of affect. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kagan, J. (1982). Psychological research on the human infant: An evaluative summary. New York: W. T. Grant Foundation.Google Scholar
  60. Kaye, K., & Fogel, A. (1980). The temporal structure of face-to-face communication between mothers and infants. Developmental Psychology, 16, 454–464.Google Scholar
  61. Kelso, J. A. S., & Scholz, J. P. (1986). Cooperative phenomena in biological motion. In J. Haken (Ed.), Synergetics of complex systems in physics, chemistry, and biology. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  62. Kessen, W., & Mandler, J. (1961). Anxiety, pain, and the inhibition of distress. Psychological Review, 68, 396–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lamborn, S. E., & Fischer, K. W. (1988). Optimal and functional levels in cognitive development: The individual’s developmental range, Newsletter of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, No. 2 (Serial No. 14), 1–4.Google Scholar
  64. Legerstee, M., Pomerleau, A., Malcuit, G., & Feider, H. (1987). The development of infants’ responses to people and a doll: Implications for research in communication. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 81–96.Google Scholar
  65. Lindsley, D. B. (1951). Emotion. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Maratos, O. (1982). Trends in the development of imitation in early infancy. In T. G. Bever (Ed.), Regressions in mental development: Basic phenomena and theories, (pp. 81–101 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  67. Marvin, R. S., Greenberg, M. T., & Mossler, D. G. (1976). The early development of conceptual perspective taking: Distinguising among multiple perspectives. Child Devlopment, 47, 511–514.Google Scholar
  68. Maurer, D., & Salapatek, P. (1976). Developmental changes in the scanning of faces by young infants. Child Development, 46, 523–527.Google Scholar
  69. McCall, R. B. (1983). Exploring developmental transitions in mental performance. In K. W. Fischer (Ed.), Levels and transitions in children’s development. New Directions for Child Development, (No. 21, pp. 65–80 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  70. McCall, R. B., Eichorn, D. H., & Hogarty, P. S. (1977). Transitions in early mental development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Development, 42, (3, Serial No. 171).Google Scholar
  71. McCune-Nicolich, L. (1981). Toward symbolic functioning: Structure of early pretend games and potential parallels with language. Child Development, 52, 785–797.Google Scholar
  72. McGraw, M. B. (1943). The neuromuscular maturation of human infant. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Mounoud, P. (1976). Les revolutions psychologiques de l’enfant. Archives de Psychologie, 44, 103–114.Google Scholar
  74. Papousek, H., & Papousek, M. (1979). The infant’s fundamental adaptive response system in social interaction. In E. B. Thoman (Ed.), Origins of the infant’s social responsiveness. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  75. Parker, S. T. (1977). Piaget’s sensorimotor series in an infant macaque: A model for comparing unstereotyped behavior and intelligence in human and nonhuman primates. In S. Chevalier-Skolnikoff & F. E. Poirier (Eds.) Primate bio-social development: Biological, social, and ecological determinants, (pp. 43–112 ). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  76. Peiper, A. (1963). Cerebral function in infancy and childhood. New York: Consultants Bureau, 1963.Google Scholar
  77. Piaget, J. (1941). Le mécanisme du developpement mental et les lois du groupement des opérations. Archives de Psychologie, Genève, 28, 215–285.Google Scholar
  78. Piaget, J. (1951). Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood, (C. Gattegno & F. M. Hodgson, Trans.). New York: Harcourt Brace. (Originally published 1946 )Google Scholar
  79. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children, (M. Cook, Trans.). New York: International Universities Press (Originally published 1936 )Google Scholar
  80. Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child, (M. Cook, Trans.). New York, Basic Books. ( Originally published 1937 )Google Scholar
  81. Piaget, J. (1957). Logique et équilibre dans les comportements du sujet. Études d’Épistémologie Génétique, 2, 27–118.Google Scholar
  82. Piaget, J. (1983). Piaget’s theory. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 1: History, theory, and methods. ( W. Kessen, Ed., pp. 103–126 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  83. Pipp, S. L., & Haith, M. M. (1977). Infant visual scanning of two-and three-dimension forms. Child Development, 48, 1640–1644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pipp, S. L., Fischer, K. W. & Jennings, S. L. (1987). The acquisition of self and mother knowledge in infancy. Developmental Psychology. 22, 86–96.Google Scholar
  85. Prechtl, H. F. R., & O’Brien, M. J. (1982). Behavioral states of the full-term newborn: The emergence of a concept. In P. Stratton (Ed.), Psychobiology of the human newborn, (pp. 53–73 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  86. Ramsay, D. S. (1984). Onset of duplicated syllable babbling and unimanual handedness in infancy: Evidence for developmental change in hemispheric specialization? Developmental Psychology, 20, 64–71.Google Scholar
  87. Rapaport, J. L., Buchsbaum, M. S., Weingartner, J. L., Zahn, T. P., Ludlow, C., & Mikkelsen, E. J. (1980). Dextroamphetamine: Its cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 933–943.Google Scholar
  88. Rovee-Collier, C. (1987). Learning and memory in infancy. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development, ( 2nd ed., pp. 98–148 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Scherer, K. R., Walbott, H. G., & Summerfield, A. B. (Eds.). (1986). Experiencing emotions: A cross-cultural study. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Seibert, J., & Hogan, A. (1982). A model for assessing social and object skills and planning intervention. In D. P. McClowry, A. M. Guilford, & S. O. Richardson (Eds.), Infant communication, (pp. 21–51 ). New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  91. Seibert, J. M., Hogan, A. F., & Mundy, P. C. (1984). Mental age and cognitive stage in young handicapped and at-risk children. Intelligence, 8, 11–29.Google Scholar
  92. Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1061–1086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  94. Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Socioemotional development. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development, (pp. 462–516 ). New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  95. Stenberg, C., Campos, J., & Emde, R. (1983). The facial expression of anger in sevenmonth-old infants. Child Development, 54, 178–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Thelen, E., & Fisher, D. M. (1982). Newborn stepping: An explanation for the “disappearing reflex.” Developmental Psychology, 18, 760–775.Google Scholar
  97. Tomasello, M., & Farrar, M. J. (1984). Cognitive bases of lexical development: Object permanence and relational words. Journal of Child Language, 11, 477–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Tomasello, M., & Farrar, M. J. (1986). Object permanence and relational words: A lexical training study. Journal of Child Language, 13, 495–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Tomkins, S. (1962–1963). Affect, imagery, consciousness. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  100. Touwen, B. C. L. (1976). Neurological development in infancy, (Clinics in developmental medicine, No. 58 ). London: Spastics International.Google Scholar
  101. Turvey, M. T. (1977). Preliminaries to a theory of action with reference to vision. In R. Shaw & J. Bradsford (Eds.), Perceiving, acting, and knowing: Toward an ecological psychology, (pp. 211–267 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  102. Uzgiris, I. C. (1976). Organization of sensorimotor intelligence. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence: Infancy and early childhood, (pp. 123–164 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  103. von Hofsten, C. (1984). Developmental changes in the organization of prereaching movements. Developmental Psychology, 20, 378–388.Google Scholar
  104. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes, (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & Ellen Souberman, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Watson, M. W., & Fischer, K. W. (1980). Development of social roles in elicited and spontaneous behavior during the preschool years. Developmental Psychology, 16, 484–494.Google Scholar
  106. Wohlwill, J. F. (1973). The study of behavioral development. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  107. Wolff, P. H. (1966). The causes, controls, and organization of behavior in the neonate. Psychological Issues, 5 (17).Google Scholar
  108. Wood, D. J. (1980). Teaching the young child: Some relationships between social interaction, language, and thought. In D. R. Olson (Ed.), The social foundations of language and thought, (pp. 280–296 ). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  109. Woodruff, D. S. (1978). Brain electrical activity and behavior relationships over the life-span. In P. B. Baltes (Ed.), Life-span development and behavior, (Vol. 1, pp. 111–179 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  110. Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459–482.Google Scholar
  111. Zelazo, P. R., & Leonard, E. L. (1983). The dawn of active thought. In K. W. Fischer (Ed.), Levels and transitions in children’s development. New Directions for Child Development, (No. 21, pp. 37–50 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  112. Zelazo, P. R., Zelazo, N. A., & Kolb, S. (1972). “Walking” in the newborn. Science, 176, 314–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt W. Fischer
    • 1
  • Anne E. Hogan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Human DevelopmentHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA

Personalised recommendations