Advertisement

Fertilization in Bats

  • Philip H. Krutzsch
  • Elizabeth G. Crichton

Abstract

The process of reproduction among the exceedingly diverse and specialized group of flying mammals that comprise the order Chiroptera is remarkably variable in both anatomic and physiological characteristics. The ubiquitous distribution, almost worldwide, and varied habitat and niche selection of the some 847 known species (Koopman and Jones, 1970) have resulted in the expression of many different reproductive patterns, of which monestry, polyestry, asymmetry of female reproductive tract function, dyssynchrony between male primary and secondary sex organ function, long gestations, and delays in ovulation, implantation, or development are interesting aspects that have been described (see reviews in the Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Symposium 14, and the American Journal of Anatomy, volume 178).

Keywords

Zona Pellucida Cumulus Cell Female Reproductive Tract Sperm Storage Perivitelline Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bonilla, H. de, and Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1974, Breeding activity, preimplantation development, and oviduct histology of the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia, in captivity, Anat. Rec. 179: 385–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Breed, W. G., and Inns, R. W.,1985, Variation in sperm morphology of Australian Vespertilionidae and its possible phylogenetic significance, Mammalia 49: 105–108.Google Scholar
  3. Buchanan, G. D., 1987, Timing of ovulation and early embryonic development in Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from northern central Ontario, Am. J. Anat. 178: 335–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Courrier, R., 1927, Etude sur la determinisme des caracteres sexuel secondaries chez quelques mammiferes a activite testiculaire periodique, Arch. Biol. Paris 37: 173–334.Google Scholar
  5. Crichton, E. G., Krutzsch, P. H., and Wimsatt, W. A., 1981, Studies on prolonged spermatozoa survival in Chiroptera—I. The role of uterine free fructose in the spermatozoa storage phenomenon, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70A: 387–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crichton, E. G., Krutzsch, P H., and Chvapil, M., 1982, Studies on prolonged spermatozoa survival in Chiroptera—II. The role of zinc in the spermatozoa storage phenomenon, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71A: 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cummins, J. M., and Woodall, P. E, 1985, On mammalian sperm dimensions, J. Reprod. Fertil. 75: 153–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cummins, J. M., Robson, S. K., Rouse, G. W, and Graydon, M., 1986, Ultrastructure of the ionophore-induced acrosome reaction in spermatozoa of the grey flying fox, Pteropus poliocephalus, Aust. Soc. Reprod. Biol. 18: 73.Google Scholar
  9. Davis, B. K., 1981, Timing of fertilization in mammals: Sperm cholesterol/phospholipid ratio as a determinant of the capacitation interval, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78: 7560–7564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fawcett, D. W, 1970, A comparative review of sperm ultrastructure, Biol. Reprod. 2: 90–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fawcett, D. W, and Ito, S., 1965, The fine structure of bat spermatozoa, Am. J. Anat. 116: 567–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gopalakrishna, A., and Madhavan, A., 1971, Survival of spermatozoa in the female genital tract of the Indian vespertilionid bat, Pipistrellus ceylonicus chrysothrix (Wroughton), Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 73: 43–49.Google Scholar
  13. Gopalakrishna, A., and Madhavan, A., 1978, Viability of inseminated spermatozoa in the Indian vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi (Horsefield), Indian J. Exp. Biol. 16: 852–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hartman, C. Z., 1933, On the survival of spermatozoa in the female genital tract of the bat, Q. Rev. Biol. 8: 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hiraiwa, Y. K., and Uchida, T. A., 1956a, Fertilization in the bat, Pipistrellus abramus abramus (Temminck) III. Fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa stored in the uterus after copulation in the fall, Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 15: 565–574.Google Scholar
  16. Hiraiwa, Y. K., and Uchida, T. A., 1956b, Fertilization in the bat, Pipistrellus abramus. A successful example of artificial insemination with epididymal spermatozoa in autumn, Science Tokyo 26: 535.Google Scholar
  17. Hoffman, L. H., Wimsatt, W. A., and Olson, G. E., 1987, Plasma membrane structure of bat spermatozoa: Observations on epididymal and uterine spermatozoa in Myotis lucifugus, Am. J. Anat. 178: 326–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Karim, K. B., 1975, Early development of the embryo and implantation in the Indian vespertilionid bat, Pipistrellus mimus mimus (Wroughton), Z. Zool. Soc. India 27: 119–136.Google Scholar
  19. Kitchener, D. J., and Coster, P, 1981, Reproduction in female Chalinolobus morio (Gray) (Vepertilionidae) in southwestern Australia, Aust. J. Zool. 29: 305–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koopman, K. E, and Jones, J. K., Jr., 1970, Classification of bats, in: About Bats ( B. H. Slaughter and D. W. Walton, eds.), Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, pp. 22–28.Google Scholar
  21. Krutzsch, P. H., 1979, Male reproductive patterns in nonhibernating bats, J. Reprod. Fertil. 56: 333–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krutzsch, P. H., Crichton, E. G., and Nagle, R. B., 1982, Studies on prolonged spermatozoa survival in Chiroptera: A morphological examination of storage and clearance of intrauterine and cauda epididymal spermatozoa in the bats Myotis lucifugus and M. velifer, Am. J. Anat. 165: 421–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krutzsch, P. H., Crichton, E. G., Lennon, D. L. F, Stratman, E W, and Carter, A. L., 1984, Studies on prolonged spermatozoa survival in Chiroptera—III. Preliminary data on carnitine, Andrologia 16: 34–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lambert, H., 1981, Temperature dependence on capacitation in bat sperm monitored by zona-free hamster ova, Gamete Res. 4: 525–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mahi, C. A., and Yanagimachi, R., 1978, Capacitation, acrosome reaction, and egg penetration by canine spermatozoa in a single defined medium, Gamete Res. 1: 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Medway, Lord, 1972, Reproductive cycles of the flat-headed bats Tylonycteris pachypus and T. robustula (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in a humid equatorial environment, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 51: 33–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mori, T., and Uchida, T. A., 1980, Sperm storage in the reproductive tract of the female Japanese long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 58: 429–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mori, T., and Uchida, T. A., 1981, Ultrastructural observations of fertilization in the Japanese long-fingered bat Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 63: 231–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mori, T., and Uchida, T. A., 1982, Changes in the morphology and behaviour of spermatozoa between copulation and fertilization in the Japanese long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 65: 23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mori, T, Oh, Y. K., and Uchida, T. A., 1982, Sperm storage in the oviduct of the Japanese greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon, Kyushu Univ. Fac. Agr. J. 27: 47–53.Google Scholar
  31. Oxberry, B. A., 1979, Female reproductive patterns in hibernating bats, J. Reprod. Fertil. 56: 359–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pagenstecher, H. A., 1859, Uber die Begattung von Vesperugo pipistrellus, Ver. Naturh.-Med. Ver. Heidetb. 1: 194–195.Google Scholar
  33. Pearson, O. P, Koford, M. R., and Pearson, A. K., 1952, Reproduction of the lump nosed bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquei) in California, J. Mamm. 33: 273–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Quintero, H. F., and Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1974, Ovulation and early embryonic development in the captive vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 41: 265–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Racey, P A., 1973, The viability of spermatozoa after prolonged storage by male and female European bats, Period. Biol. 75: 201–205.Google Scholar
  36. Racey, P A., 1975, The prolonged survival of spermatozoa in bats, in: The Biology of the Male Gamete ( J. G. Duckett and P. A. Racey, eds.) Academic Press, London, pp. 385–416.Google Scholar
  37. Racey, P. A., 1979, The prolonged storage and survival of spermatozoa in Chiroptera, J. Reprod. Fertil. 56: 391–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Racey, P. A., Suzuki, F., and Medway, Lord, 1975, The relationship between stored spermatozoa and the oviductal epithelium in bats of the genus Tylonycteris, in: The Biology of Spermatozoa: Transport, Survival and Fertilizing Capacity ( E. S. E. Hafez and C. G. Thibault, eds.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 123–133.Google Scholar
  39. Racey, P. A., Uchida, T. A., Mori, T., Avery, M. I., and Fenton, M. B., 1987, Sperm—epithelial relationships in relation to the time of insemination in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), J Reprod. Fertil. 80: 445–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ramakrishna, P. A., 1951, Studies on reproduction in bats. 1. Some aspects of reproduction in the oriental vampires Lyroderma lyra lyra Geoff and Megaderma spasma (Linn.), J. Mysore Univ. B Science 2: 107–118.Google Scholar
  41. Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1972, Reproduction in the long-tongued bat, Glossophaga soricina. I Preimplantation development and histology of the oviduct, J. Reprod. Fertil. 31: 249–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1977, Preimplantation development fate of the zona pellucida, and observations on the glycogen-rich oviduct of the little bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris, Am. J. Anat. 150: 269–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1978, Unilateral oviductal and uterine reactions in the little bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris, Biol. Reprod. 19: 467–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1979, Differential transport of embryos and degenerating ova by the oviducts of the long-tongued bat, Glossophaga soricina, J. Reprod. Fertil. 55: 329–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1982, The contribution of observations on early pregnancy in the little sac-winged bat, Peropteryx kappleri, to an understanding of the evolution of reproductive mechanisms in monovular bats, Biol. Reprod. 27: 681–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Richardson, E. G., 1977, The biology and evolution of the reproductive cycle of Miniopterus schreibersii and M. australis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), J. Zool. Lond. 183: 353–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rouse, G. W, and Robson, S. K., 1986, An ultrastructural study of megachiropteran (Mammalia: Chiroptera) spermatozoa: Implications for chiropteran phylogeny, J. Submicrosc. Cytol. 18: 137–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Uchida, T. A., 1953, Studies on the embryology of the Japanese house bat, Pipistrellus tralatitius abramus (Temminck). II From the maturation of the ova to the fertilization, especially on the behaviour of the follicle cells at the period of fertilization, Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 14: 153–168.Google Scholar
  49. Uchida, T. A., 1957, Fertilization and hibernation in bats, Heredity (Tokyo) 11: 14–17.Google Scholar
  50. Uchida, T. A., and Mori, T., 1972, Electron microscope studies on the fine structure of germ cells in Chiroptera. 1. Spermiogenesis in some bats and notes on its phylogenetic significance, Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 26: 399–418.Google Scholar
  51. Uchida, T. A., and Mori, T., 1974, Electron microscopic analysis of the mechanisms of fertilization in Chiroptera. 1. Acrosomal reaction and consequence to death of the sperm in the Japanese long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersi fuliginosus, Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 28: 177–184.Google Scholar
  52. Uchida, T A., and Mori, T, 1987, Prolonged storage of spermatozoa in hibernating bats, in: Recent Advances in the Study of Bats ( M. B. Fenton, P. A. Racey, and J. M. V. Rayner, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 351–365.Google Scholar
  53. Uchida, T. A., Mori, T., and Son, S. W., 1988, Delayed capacitation of sperm in the Japanese house bat, Pipistrellus abramus, J. Mamm. Soc. Jpn. 13: 1–10.Google Scholar
  54. Wimsatt, W. A., 1942, Survival of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract of the bat, Anat. Rec. 83: 299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wimsatt, W. A., 1944, Further studies on the survival of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract of the bat, Anat. Rec. 88: 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wimsatt, W. A., 1960, Some problems of reproduction in relation to hibernation in bats, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Univ. 124: 249–267.Google Scholar
  57. Wimsatt, W. A., 1969, Some interrelations of reproduction and hibernation in mammals, Symp. Exp. Biol. 23: 511–549.Google Scholar
  58. Wimsatt, W. A., and Kallen, F. C., 1957, The unique maturation response of the Graafian follicles of hibernating vespertilionid bats and the question of its significance, Anat. Rec. 129: 115–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wimsatt, W. A., and Parks, H. F., 1966, Ultrastructure of the surviving follicle of hibernation and of the ovum— follicle cell relationship in the vespertilinoid bat Myotis lucifugus, Symp. Zool. Soc. Gond. 15: 419–454.Google Scholar
  60. Wimsatt, W. A., Krutzsch, P. H., and Napolitano, L., 1966, Studies on sperm survival mechanisms in the female reproductive tract of hibernating bats. 1. Cytology and ultra-structure of intra-uterine spermatozoa in Myotis lucifugus, Am. J. Anat. 119: 25–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yanagimachi, R., 1988, Mammalian fertilization, in: Physiology of Reproduction, Vol. I ( E. Knobil and J. D. Neill, eds.), Raven Press Ltd., New York, pp. 135–185.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip H. Krutzsch
    • 1
  • Elizabeth G. Crichton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations