Advertisement

Q-Switches and external switching devices

  • Walter Koechner
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 1)

Abstract

The most important device to be discussed in this chapter is the laser Q-switch. This device, located inside the laser resonator, drastically changes the power and temporal characteristic of the beam obtained from a laser oscillator. Other switches employed outside the resonator include optical gates, which are used to select one pulse from a train of pulses or to slice a small portion from a larger pulse, and optical isolators, which are employed to eliminate feedback between amplifier stages.

Keywords

Peak Power Diffraction Efficiency Saturable Absorber Population Inversion Photon Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 8.1
    R. W. Hellwarth: In Advances in Quantum Electronics ( Columbia University Press, New York, 1961 ), p. 334Google Scholar
  2. 8.2
    F. J. McClung, R. W. Hellwarth: Proc. IRE 51, 46 (1963)Google Scholar
  3. 8.3
    W. G. Wagner, B. A. Lengyel: J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4a R. B. Kay, G. S. Waldman: J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1319 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 4b R. H. Dishington: Energy extraction optimization in lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Optical Instr. Eng. 69, 135 (1975)Google Scholar
  6. 8.5
    J. E. Midwinter: Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1125 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 8.6
    A. R. Newberry: Br. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 1849 (1968)ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.7
    G. D. Baldwin: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-7, 220 (1971)Google Scholar
  9. 8.8
    R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic: Proc. IEEE 58, 1899 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 8.9
    R. J. Collins, P. Kisliuk: J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2009 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 8.10
    R. C. Benson, M. R. Mirarchi: IEEE Trans. Miiit. Electr. MIL-8, 13 (1964)Google Scholar
  12. 8.11
    W. Buchman, W. Koechner, D. Rice: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-6, 747 (1970)Google Scholar
  13. 8.12
    I. W. Mackintosh: Appl. Opt. 8, 1991 (1969)Google Scholar
  14. 8.13
    E. L. Steele, W. C. Davis, R. L. Treuthart: Appl. Opt. 5, 5 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 8.14
    R. Daly, S. D. Sims: App!. Opt. 3, 1063 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 8.15
    J. E. Geusic, M. L. Hensel, R. G. Smith: Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 175 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 8.16
    E. J. Woodbury: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-3, 509 (1967)Google Scholar
  18. 8.17
    R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-3, 406 (1967)Google Scholar
  19. 8.18
    D. Findlay, A. F. Fray: Opto-Electronics 2, 51 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 8.19
    M. Born, E. Wolf: Principles of Optics, 2nd ed. ( Macmillan, New York, 1964 )Google Scholar
  21. 8.20
    I. P. Kaminow, E. H. Turner: App!. Opt. 54, 1374 (1966)Google Scholar
  22. 8.21
    C. L. Hu: J. App!. Phys. 38, 3275 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 8.22
    B. H. Billings: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 797 (1949)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 8.23
    B. H. Billings: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 802 (1949)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 8.24
    R. O’B, Carpenter: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 225 (1950)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 8.25
    B. H. Billings: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 12 (1952)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 8.26
    R. Goldstein: Laser Focus, 21 (February 1968)Google Scholar
  28. 8.27
    J. T. Milek, S. J. Welles: Linear electro-optic modulator materials, Report AD 704–556, Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif. (January 1970)Google Scholar
  29. 8.28
    F. Zernike, Jr.: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1215 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 8.29
    J. H. Ott, T. R. Sliker: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1442 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 8.30
    T. R. Sliker, S. R. Burlage: J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1837 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 8.31
    M. Yamazaki, T. Ogawa: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1407 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 8.32
    R. A. Phillips: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 629 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 8.33
    D. Milam: Appl. Opt. 12, 602 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 8.34
    W. R. Hook, R. P. Hilberg: Appl. Opt. 10, 1179 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 8.35
    W. W. Buchman: Pockels cell potential distribution and its effects on design, Report KER 00001, Korad Div., Hadron, Inc. (1969)Google Scholar
  37. 8.36
    L. L. Steinmetz, T. W. Pouliot, B. C. Johnson: Appl. Opt. 12, 1468 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 8.37
    M. Dore: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-3, 555 (1967)Google Scholar
  39. 8.38
    C. H. Clayson: Electr. Letters 2, 138 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 8.39
    B. Trevelyan: J. Sci. Instr. 2, 425 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 8.40
    J. M. Ley: Electr. Letters 2, 12 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 8.41
    M. Okada: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-6 526 (1970)Google Scholar
  43. 8.42
    B. Stadnik: ACTA Technica CSAV 1, 65 (1970)Google Scholar
  44. 8.43
    M. B. Davies, P. H. Sarkies, J. K. Wright: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-4, 533 (1968)Google Scholar
  45. 8.44
    A. S. Bebchuk, L. A. Kulevskiy, V. V. Smirnov, Yu. N. Solovyeva: Rad. Eng. and Electr. Phys. 14, 919 (1969)Google Scholar
  46. 8.45
    R. P. Hilberg, W. R. Hook: Appl. Opt. 9, 1939 (1970)Google Scholar
  47. 8.46
    M. K. Chun, J. T. Bischoff: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-8, 715 (1972)Google Scholar
  48. 8.47
    W. R. Hook, R. P. Hilberg, R. H. Dishington: Proc. IEEE 59, 1126 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 8.48
    J. F. Ney: Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford University Press, London, 1964 )Google Scholar
  50. 8.49
    A. W. Warner, M. Onoe, G. A. Coquin: J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 42, 1223 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 8.50
    E. A. Teppo: Nd: YAG Laser Lab. Experiments, January 1972 to June 1973, Technical Note 4051–7, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. ( August 1973 )Google Scholar
  52. 8.51
    R. V. Lovberg, E. R. Wooding, M. L. Yeoman: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-11, 17 (1975)Google Scholar
  53. 8.52
    H. W. Mocker: Appl. Opt. 5, 1829 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 8.53
    I. F. Balashov, V. A. Berenberg, B. A. Ermakov: Soy. Phys.—Tech. Phys. 13, 699 (1968)Google Scholar
  55. 8.54
    M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen: Appl. Phys. Letters 15, 192 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-7, 37 (1971)Google Scholar
  57. M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen: Appl. Opt. 10, 2162 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 8.55
    A. R. Newberry: Br. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 1849 (1968)ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 8.56
    E. I. Gordon: Proc. IEEE 54, 1391 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 8.57
    R. Adler: IEEE Spectrum 4, 42 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 8.58
    C. F. Quate, C. D. Wilkinson, D. K. Winslow: Proc. IEEE 53, 1604 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 8.59
    R. W. Dixon: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-3, 85 (1967)Google Scholar
  63. 8.60
    N. Uchida, N. Niizeki: Proc. IEEE 61, 1073 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 8.61
    D. Maydan: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-6, 15 (1970)Google Scholar
  65. 8.62
    T. Nowicki: Electro-Opt. Syst. Design, 24 (January 1974)Google Scholar
  66. 8.63
    M. Cohen: Electro-Opt. Syst. Design, 23 (April 1972)Google Scholar
  67. 8.64
    D. E. Flinchbaugh: Electro-Opt. Syst. Design, 24 (January 1974)Google Scholar
  68. 8.65
    D. A. Pinnow: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-6, 223 (1970)Google Scholar
  69. 8.66
    R. W. Dixon: J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5149 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 8.
    Isomet Data Sheet, Acousto-Optic Q-switch, Model 453 (May 1?73)Google Scholar
  71. 8.68
    M. G. Cohen: Optical Spectra, 32 (November 1973)Google Scholar
  72. 8.69
    M. G. Cohen, R. T. Daly, R. A. Kaplan: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-7, 58 (1971)Google Scholar
  73. 8.70
    R. B. Chesler, D. A. Pinnow, W. W. Benson: Appl. Opt. 10, 2562 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 8.71
    P. P. Sorokin, J. J. Luzzi, J R Lankard, G. D. Pettit: IBM J. Res. Div. 8, 182 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 8.72
    P. Kafalas, J. I. Masters, E. M. E. Murrary: J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2349 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 8.73
    B. H. Soffer: J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2551 (1964)ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 8.74
    R. Wuerker, L. O. Heflinger: J. Soc. Photo-Optical Instr. Eng. 9, 122 (1971)Google Scholar
  78. 8.75
    J. A. Armstrong: Saturable optical absorption in phthalocyanine dyes, Research Paper RC-1253, IBM Watson Res. Center, (August 1964)Google Scholar
  79. 8.76
    W. R. Sooy: Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 36 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 8.77
    B. B. McFarland, R. H. Hoskins, B. H. Soffer: Nature 207, 1180 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 8.
    Mitsubishi Electr. Corp., Plastic Ruby Laser Q-switch, Models 100 to 170 RA, Data Sheet.Google Scholar
  82. 8.79
    A. A. Vuylsteke: J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1615 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 8.80
    W. R. Hook, R. H. Dishington, R. P. Hilberg: Appl. Phys. Letters 9, 125 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 8.81
    W. J. Rundle: J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5338 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 8.82
    W. J. Rundle: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-5, 342 (1969)Google Scholar
  86. 8.83
    W. R. Hook: Proc. IEEE 54, 1954 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 8.
    W. Rundle, W. K. Pendleton: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-12 (1976) to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  88. 8.85
    A. E. Siegman: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-9, 247 (1973)Google Scholar
  89. 8.86
    D. Milam, R. A. Bradbury, A. Hordvik, H. Schlossberg, A. Szoke: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-10, 20 (1974)Google Scholar
  90. 8.87
    D. Maydan, R. B. Chesler: J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1031 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 8.88
    R. B. Chesler, D. Maydan: J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1028 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 8.89
    D. Cheng: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-9, 585 (1973)Google Scholar
  93. 8.90
    D. Maydan: J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1552 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 91a H. A. Kruegle, L. Klein: Appl. Optics 15, 466 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 91b R. H. Johnson: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-9, 255 (1973)Google Scholar
  96. 8.92
    C. W. Reno: Appl. Opt. 12, 883 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 93a J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-6, 483 (1970)Google Scholar
  98. 93b A. H. Guenther, J. R. Bettis, R. E. Anderson, R. V. Wick: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-6, 492 (1970)Google Scholar
  99. 94a D. Milam, C. C. Gallagher, R. A. Bradbury, E. S. Bliss: Rev. Sci. Instr, 43, 1482 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 94b D. von der Linde, O. Bernecker, A. Laubereau: Opt. Commun. 2, 215 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 8.95
    J. P. Letellier: Parallel plate transmission line Pockels cell, NRL Report 7463, Naval Res. Lab., Washington, D.C. (1972)Google Scholar
  102. 8.96
    A. J. Alcock, M. C. Richardson, K. Leopold: Rev. Sci. Instr. 41, 1028 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 97a P. D. Morgan, N. J. Peacock: J. Phys. E. Sci. Instr. 4, 677 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 97b F. Deutsch: Br. J. Appl. Phys. 1, 1711 (1968)Google Scholar
  105. 98a V. J. Corcoran, R. W. McMillan, P. M. Rushworth: Appl. Optics 14, 643 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 98b R. C. Hyer, H. D. Sutphin, K. R. Winn: Rev. Sci. Instr. 46, 1333 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 8.99
    G. A. Kimber, P. J. Bateman: A Faraday isolator system for use at wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.9 pm, Tech. Report 66153, Royal Aircraft Estab. (1966)Google Scholar
  108. 8.100
    K. Eidmann, P. Sachsenmaier, H. Salzmann, R. Sigel: J. Phys. E. Sci. Instr. 5, 56 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 8.
    Hadron/Cilas Data Sheet, Model RF 70, Faraday Effect Optical Isolator.Google Scholar
  110. 8.102
    C. F. Padula, C. G. Young: IEEE J. Quant. Electr. QE-3, 493 (1967)Google Scholar
  111. 8.103
    G. Leppelmeier, W. Simmons: Faraday Isolators, Semiannual Report UCRL–50021–73–1, p. 78, and UCRL–50021–73–2, p. 50, Lawrence Livermore Lab., University of California, Livermore, Calif. (1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Koechner
    • 1
  1. 1.Korad Division of Hadron, Inc.Santa MonicaUSA

Personalised recommendations