Metals, Cations, and Anions
Grapes, musts, and to a lesser extent, wine contain trace amounts of heavy metals. The term “heavy metals” distinguishes those near the bottom of the periodic table (i.e., lead, mercury, and cadmium) and metal-like elements (such as arsenic) from the common “lighter weight” metals (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) present in significant amounts in grapes (see Chapter 15). Heavy metals are toxic to biological systems due to their ability to deactivate enzymes. As such, their allowable concentrations in foods is regulated. In terms of decreasing concentrations normally seen in wine, these include iron, copper, zinc, manganese, aluminum, lead, and arsenic (Table 12–1).
KeywordsWhite Wine Ethyl Carbamate Yeast Cell Membrane Ferric Phosphate Casse Formation
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