It is estimated that 12 to 13 billion bottles of wine annually are packaged with cork stoppers (Hagen and Lemble 1990). Cork is the product of the suberized outer tissues of the cork oak, Quercus suber. Commercial stands are limited to the western Mediterranean, where Potugal and Spain produce 55 and 28% of the total, respectively. The balance is produced in France, Italy (Sardinia), Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria.
KeywordsEthylene Oxide Mold Growth Wood Preservative Cork Stopper Mold Spore
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