Advertisement

Intracerebral pH Regulation and Ammonia Detoxification

  • N. M. Van Gelder
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 153)

Summary

Two regulatory cycles are known which assure the hydrogen and ammonia ion balance in the CNS. The CO2/bicarbonate system opposes excessive acidoses and may provide an important energy source (H+) for glia. The glutamate/glutamine system opposes excessive alkalosis and is important in balancing the excitation inhibition modulation of the CNS (glutamate — GABA system). Both systems are critically dependent on two glial enzymes: carbonic anhydrase and glutamine synthetase, respectively. The principal substrates for these enzymes- CO2, NH3 and glutamate- are derived from neurons and become increasingly available with greater neuronal activity.

Keywords

Glutamic Acid Carbonic Anhydrase Satellite Cell Glutamine Synthetase Glutamine Synthetase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Giacobini, E., J. Neurochem. 9: 169–177 (1962).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mandel, P., Roussel, G., Delaunoy, J.-P. and Nussbaum, J.-L., in: “Dynamic Properties of Glia Cells”, edited by E. Schoffeniels, G. Franck, L. Hertz and D.B. Tower. Acad. Press, N.Y., pp. 619–630 (1978).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parthe, V., J. Neuroscie Res. 6: 119–131 (1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Woodbury, D.M., Progr. Brain Res. 29: 297–312 (1968).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Woodbury, D.M., “Antiepileptic Drug Mechanisms of Action” edited by G.H. Glaser, J.K. Penry and D.M. Woodbury, Raven Press, N.Y., pp. 617–633 (1980).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Svaetichin, G., Negishi, K., Fatehchand, R., Drujan, B.D., and Selvin de Testa, A., Progr. Brain Res. 15: 243–266 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tursky, T., Ruscak, M., Lassanova, M. and Ruscakova, D., J. Neurochem. 33: 1209–1215 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Norberg, K. and Siesjo, B.K., Brain Res. 86: 45–54 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patuszko, A., Wilson, D.F., Erecinska, M. and Silver I.A., J. Neurochem. 36: 116–123 (1981).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berl, S., J. Biol. Chem. 240: 2047–2054 (1965).Google Scholar
  11. Van Gelder, N.M., Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 56: 362–374 (1978).Google Scholar
  12. Van Gelder, N.M., Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 29: 115–125 (1981).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mcllwain, H., in: “Biochemistry and the Central Nervous System”, edited by H. Mcllwain, J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, pp. 114–119 (1959).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chee, P.Y., Dahl, J.L. and Fabien, L.A., J. Neurochem. 33: 53–60 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kvamme, E. and Olson, B.E., Brain Res. 181: 223–233 (1980).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Norberg, K. and Siesjo, B.K., Brain Res. 86: 31–44 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cummins, J.T., Hamberger, A. and Nystrom, B., J. Neuroscie. Res. 6: 217–224 (1 981).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Collins, G.G.S., Anson, J. and Probett, G.A., Brain Res. 204: 103–120 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hertz, L., Schousboe, A., Boechler, N., Mukerji, S. and Federoff, S., Neurochem. Res. 3: 1–14 (1978).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kvamme, E., In:”GABA - Biochemistry and CNS Function”,edited by P. Mandel and F.V. De Feudis, Plenum Publ. Corp., N.Y., pp. 111–137 (1979).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henn, F.A., Goldstein, N.N. and Hamberger, A., Nature 249: 663–664 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Norenberg, M.D. and Martinez-Hernandez, A., Brain Res. 161: 303–310 (1979).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meister, A., In: “Enzyme-Activated Irreversible Inhibitors”, edited by N. Seiler, M.J. Jung and J. Kock-Weser, Elsevier/ North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp. 187–209, (1978).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Robb, P., Dhew Public. No (NIH) 73–415, Public Health Service Publication #k 1357, pp. 4–26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. M. Van Gelder
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de physiologieCentre de recherche en sciences neurologiquesSuccursale A MontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations