Impulse Radiating Antennas, Part III

  • Everett G. Farr
  • Carl E. Baum


In this paper we continue our general discussion of Impulse Radiating Antennas (IRAs), which has been carried on during the first two Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics conferences. IRAs are a class of antennas that consist of a TEM feed section and either a lens or reflector to focus the aperture field. We summarize here much of the more recent information, including new antenna designs, new calculation methods, and an optimization of the impedance of the lens IRA.

First, we explore a wide variety of new IRA designs that include two reflecting or refracting surfaces. By using two surfaces, one can achieve considerable additional flexibility in design. This flexibility allows very compact designs, and also allows additional choices of feed impedance.

Next, we consider the optimal feed impedance for long TEM horns and lens IRAs. We consider both TEM horns whose plates are flat, and whose plates are confined to a circular arc. We also consider both infinite apertures and circular apertures of finite radius. The optimal impedance is determined as the impedance that provides the highest radiated field for a given input power.

Finally, we calculate the field radiated from a four-wire aperture, both on- and off-boresight. This is an approximation to the aperture field of a four-armed reflector IRA.


Flat Plate Step Response Power Gain Prolate Spheroid Circular Aperture 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. E. Baum and E. G. Farr, “Impulse Radiating Antennas,” pp. 139–147 In: H. L. Bertoni et al (eds.), Ultra Wideband/Short-Pulse Electromagnetics, Plenum Press, New York, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. G. Fan, C. E. Baum, and C. J. Buchenauer, “Impulse Radiating Antennas, Part II, pp. 159–178 In: L. Carin et al (eds.), Ultra Wideband/Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 2, Plenum Press, New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. G. Fan and C. E Baum, Impulse Radiating Antennas With Two Refracting or Reflecting Surfaces, Sensor and Simulation Note 379, May 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. E. Baum, J. J. Sadler, and A. P. Stone, Uniform Isotropic Dielectric Equal-Time Lenses for Matching Combinations of Plane and Spherical Waves, Sensor and Simulation Note 352, December 1992.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. G. Farr, Optimizing the Feed Impedance of Impulse Radiating Antennas, Part I: Reflector IRAs, Sensor and Simulation Note 354, January 1993.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. G. Fan, Optimization of the Feed Impedance of Impulse Radiating Antennas, Part II: TEM Horns and Lens IRAs, Sensor and Simulation Note 384, November 1995.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. E. Baum, D. V. Giri, and R. D. Gonzalez, Electromagnetic Field Distribution of the TEM Mode in a Symmetrical Two-Parallel-Plate Transmission Line, Sensor and Simulation Note 219, April 1976.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. E. Baum, Impedances and Field Distributions for Parallel Plate Transmission Line Simulators, Sensor and Simulation Note 21, June 1966.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, Field Theory Handbook, second edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. G. Fan and C. E. Baum, Extending the Definitions of Antenna Gain and Radiation Patter: Into the Time Domain, Sensor and Simulation Note 350, November 1992.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. E. Baum, Aperture Efficiencies for IRAs, Sensor and Simulation Note 328, June 1991.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. G. Fan and C. E. Baum, Radiation from Self-Reciprocal Apertures, Chapter 6 in C. E. Baum and H. N. Kritikos, Electromagnetic Symmetry, Taylor and Francis, 1995.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. G. Fan and C. E. Baum, The Radiation Pattern of Reflector Impulse Radiating Antennas: Early-Time Response, Sensor and Simulation Note 358, June, 1993.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. G. Fan and C. A. Frost, Development of a Reflector IRA and a Solid Dielectric Lens IRA, Part I: Design, Predictions and Construction, Sensor and Simulation Note 396, April 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Everett G. Farr
    • 1
  • Carl E. Baum
    • 2
  1. 1.Farr Research, Inc.AlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Phillips LaboratoryKirtland AFBUSA

Personalised recommendations