Intercomparison of Seawater Sampling Devices for Trace Metals
Recently several round-robin intercalibrations for trace metals in seawater1–5 have demonstrated a marked improvement in both analytical precisions and numerical agreement of results among different laboratories. However, it has often been claimed that spurious results for the determination of metals in seawater can arise unless certain sampling devices and particular methods of sampler deployment are applied to the collection of seawater samples. It is, therefore, desirable that the biases arising through the use of different, commonly-used, sampling techniques be assessed in order to decide upon the most appropriate technique(s) for both oceanic baseline and nearshore pollution studies.
KeywordsTrace Metal Seawater Sampling United Nations Environment Program Sampling Bottle Sampling Device
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bewers, J.M., J. Dalziel, P.A. Yeats and J.L. Barron, 1981: An intercalibration for trace metals in seawater. Marine Chemistry 10, 173–193.Google Scholar
- 2.Olafsson, J., 1978: Report on the ICES international inter-calibration of mercury in sea water. Marine Chemistry 6, 87–95.Google Scholar
- 3.Olafsson, J., 1980: “A preliminary report on ICES intercalibration of mercury in seawater for the Joint Monitoring Group of the Oslo and Paris Commissions”, submitted to the Marine Chemistry Working Group of ICES, Feb. 1980.Google Scholar
- 4.Thibaud, Y., 1980: “Exercise d’intercalibration CIEM, 1979, cadmium en eau de mer”, Report submitted to the Marine Chemistry Working Group of ICES, Feb. 1980.Google Scholar
- 5.Jones, P.G.W., 1977: “A preliminary report on the ICES intercalibration of sea water samples for the analyses of trace metals”. ICES CM1977/E: 16.Google Scholar
- 6.Jones, P.W.G., 1976: “An ICES intercalibration exercise for trace metal standard solutions”. ICES CM1979/E: 15.Google Scholar
- 7.Windom, H.L., 1979: “Report on the results of the ICES questionnaire on sampling and analysis of seawater for trace elements”, Submitted to the First Meeting of the Marine Chemistry Working Group, Lisbon, May 1979.Google Scholar
- 8.Pocklington, R., 1972: Variability of the ocean off Bermuda. Bedford Institute of Oceanography Report - Series BI-R72–3.Google Scholar
- 9.Nie, H.N., C.H. Hull, J.G. Jenkins, K. Steinbrenner and D.H. Bent, 1975: Statistical package for the social sciences. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc.Google Scholar
- 10.IOC, 1981: The Scientific report of the intercalibration exercise of the IOC/WMO/UNEP Pilot Project on Monitoring Background Levels of Selected Pollutants in Open-ocean Waters; IOC Technical Series No. 23 (in press).Google Scholar
- 13.Bruland, K.W., G.A. Knauer and J.H. Martin, 1978b: Zinc in northeast Pacific water. Nature 271, 741–743.Google Scholar