Skip to main content

The Significance of the River Input of Chemical Elements to the Ocean

  • Chapter

Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (MARS,volume 9)

Abstract

The objectives of this paper are to review the role of rivers as a pathway of chemical elements from the land to the ocean and to assess the significance of river input of pollutants to oceanic chemistry.

The major importance of river suspended matter (R.S.M.) on the transport of chemical elements to the ocean is underlined. The relationship between river water/river suspended sediment partition coefficient and the electronegativity function QYO has been reassessed. A comparison between theoretical erosion and actual fluxes of material carried by rivers shows that for most chemical elements these two figures are similar. Additional fluxes are observed in rivers for some elements like Sb, Zn and Pb. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of steady state and non-steady state erosional processes.

During estuarine mixing the discharge of riverine elements to the ocean is drastically modified. More than 90% of the R.S.M. settles with its associated colloidal material produced when river water mixes with sea water. Consequently, due to the strong association of chemical elements with R.S.M., only a small percentage of the continental material will reach the sea. However, the comparison of R.S.M. with deep-sea clay composition emphasizes the prime influence of river input on oceanic sediment composition over a long term period for most elements with the exception of Mn, Co and Cu.

With regards to the dissolved phase, for the elements which exhibit a conservative behaviour during estuarine mixing (“accumulated” elements), corresponding to large mean oceanic residence time (MORT), the influence of anthropogenic discharge on the global ocean will not be readily noticeable although significant changes may be observed in the coastal zone.

For those elements which show “unchanged” or “depleted” concentrations in the ocean, the influence of industrial contamination cannot be significantly observed in the open ocean, because of their rapid removal in the estuarine and coastal zone.

Finally river input of chemical elements to the ocean is compared to atmospheric and volcanic sources of material.

Keywords

  • River Water
  • Chemical Element
  • Coastal Zone
  • River Input
  • Ocean System

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4757-6864-0_16
  • Chapter length: 32 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4757-6864-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baumgartner, A. and E. Reichel, 1975: “The World Water Balance”. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 179 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Martin, J.M. and M. Meybeck, 1979: Elemental mass-balance of material carried by world major rivers. Marine Chem. 7, 173–206.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Goldberg, E.D., 1972: Man’s role in the major sediment cycle. In: “The changing Chemistry of the Oceans”, D. Dyrssen and D. Jagner, eds. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp. 267–288.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Gibbs, R.J., 1972: Water chemistry of the Amazon river. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 36, 1061–1068.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Meade, R.H., C.F. Nordin, W.F. Curtis, F.M. Costa-Rodriguez, C.M. Dovale and J.M. Edmond, 1979: Sediment loads in the Amazon river. Nature, 278, 161–163.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Symoens, J.J., 1968: Lami égalisation des eaux naturelles, Hydrobiological survey of Lake Bang Wenlu and Luapula river basin. Cercle Hydrobiologique de Bruxelles 2, 1–199.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Peters, J.J., 1978: Discharge and sand transport in the braided zone of the Zaire estuary. Neth. J. Sea Res. vol. 12 (3/4), 273–292.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bennekom, A.J. Van, G.W. Berger, W. Helder, R.T.P. De Vries, 1978: Nutrient distribution in the Zaire estuary and river plume. Neth J. Sea Res. vol. 12, (3/4), 296–323.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Handa, B.K., 1972: Geochemistry of the Ganga river water. Indian Geohydrology 8, 71–78.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Nanda, B.K., 1973: Geochemistry of Indian river waters. Int. Symp. on “Recent Researches in Geochemistry”, Patna, India.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Clarke, F.W., 1924: “Data of Geochemistry”, 5th ed., U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 770.

    Google Scholar 

  12. U.S. Geological Survey, 1966–1967: Quality of surface waters of the United States, Water Supply Papers.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Alekin, O.A. and L.V., Brazhnikova, 1960: A contribution on runoff of dissolved substances on the world’s continental surface (in Russian). Gidrochim. Mat. 32, 12–34.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Depetris, P.J., 1976: Hydrochemistry of the Parana river. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 736–739.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Meybeck, M. and J.P. Carbonnel, 1975: Chemical transport by the Mekong river. Nature 255, 134–136.

    Google Scholar 

  16. UNESCO, 1979: World Register of Rivers discharging to the oceans. Division of Water Sciences, Techn. Paper.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Livingstone, D.A., 1963: Chemical composition of rivers and lakes. Data of Geochemistry, 6th ed., U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 440-G, G1–G64.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Meybeck, M., 1979: Concentration des eaux fluviales en éléments majeurs et apports en solution aux océans. Rev. Géol. Dyn. Géogr. Phys. 21, 215–246.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Degens, E.T., 1981: Carbon transport in world rivers. SCOPE Newsletter 12, Jan. 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bennekom, A.J. Van and W. Salomons, 1980: “Pathways of nutrients and organic matter from land to ocean through rivers”. Proc. SCOR/ACMR/ECOR/IAHS UNESCO/CMG/IABO/IAPSO workshop on River Input to Ocean Systems, Rome, 26–30 March 1979. J.M. Martin, J.D. Burton, D. Eisma, eds. UNEP/UNESCO, 1980, pp. 33–51.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Meybeck, M., 1981: River transport of organic carbon to the ocean. In: “Flux of organic Carbon by Rivers to the Oceans”. U.S. Department of Energy, N.T.I.S., Springfield (CONF-8009140), pp. 219–269.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Edmond, J.M., 1980: “Pathways of nutrients and organic matter from land to ocean through rivers”. Proc. SCOR/ACMR/ECOR/IAHS UNESCO/CMG/IABO/IAPSO workshop on River Input to Ocean Systems, Rome, 26–30 March 1979. J.M. Martin, J.D. Burton, D. Eisma, eds. UNEP/UNESCO, 1980, pp. 31–32.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Gordeev, V.V. and A.P. Lisitzin, 1978: Average chemical composition of suspended solids in world rivers and river particulate inputs to oceans, (in Russian). Dokl. Aka. nauk. S.S.S.R. 238, 225–228.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Figueres, G., J.M. Martin and A.J. Thomas, 1982: Comportement géochimique de l’uranium dissous dans l’estuaire du Zaire. Ré-évaluation du bilan global de l’uranium dans l’ócean. Ocean Acta. vol 5, 2, 161–167.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Turner, D.R., A.G. Dickson and M. Whitfield, 1980: Water-rock partition coefficients and the composition of natural waters, a reassessment. Marine Chem. 9, 211–218.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Zhang, Z.B. and L.S. Liu, 1978a: A (z/1,x) rule of inor- ganic ion exchange reactions in sea water and its applications. Ocean Selections 1, 52–71 (in Chinese).

    Google Scholar 

  27. Zhang, Z.B. and L.S. Liu, 1978b: A study of the theory of the liquid-solid distribution of the elements in sea water. The theory of distribution equilibria of minor elements on hydrous oxide in sea water. Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 9, 151–157 (in Chinese).

    Google Scholar 

  28. Zhang, Z.B., L.S. Liu and N. Chen, 1979: A (z/1,x) rule of chemical processes in oceans and its applications. VII. The transport of elements in oceans and the screening loss parameter. Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 10, 214–229 (in Chinese).

    Google Scholar 

  29. Whitfield, M. and D.R. Turner, 1979a: Water-rock partition coefficients and the composition of sea water and river water. Nature 278, 132–137.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Whitfield, M. and D.R. Turner, 1979b: Critical assessment of the relationship between biological, thermodynamical and electrochemical availability. In: “Chemical Modelling in Aqueous Systems”, E.A. Jenne, ed. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C., pp. 657–680.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. Odum, W.E., G.M. Woodwell and C.F. Wurster, 1969: DDT residues absorbed from organic detritus by fiddler crabs. Science 1964, 576–577.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Martin, J.M., M. Meybeck, F. Salvadori, and A.J. Thomas, 1976: Pollution chimique des estuaries: état actuel des connaissances, juin 1974. Rapp. Scient. Techn. C.N.E.X.O. 22, 283 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Eisma, D., 1981: Suspended Matter as a Carrier for Pollutants in Estuaries and the Sea. In: “Marine Environmental Pollution”, R.A. Geyer, ed7 vol. 2, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Whitfield, M., 1979: The mean oceanic residence time (MORT) concept, a rationalisation. Marine Chem., 8, 101–123.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Egami, F., 1974: Minor elements and evolution. J. Mol. Evol. 4, 113–120.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Wilson, H.D.B. and B. Laznicka, 1972: Copper belts, lead belts and copper-lead lines of the world. Proc. 24th Int. Geol. Congress Montreal, section 4, pp. 37–51.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Rona, P.A., 1977: Plate tectonics energy and mineral resources: basic research leading to pay-off. EOS Trans. A.G.U., 58, 629–639.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Gibbs, R.J., 4977: Transport phases of transition metals in the Amazon and Yukon rivers. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 38, 6, 829–843.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Duplessy, J.C., 1980: Correlation of continental precipitations with the marine Quaternary isotopic stratigraphy. Proc. 26th Int. Geol. Congress Paris, 7–17 July 1980, B 2, abstract, 650.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Burton, J.D. and P.S. Liss, 1976: “Estuarine Chemistry”. Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Elderfield, H., 1978: Chemical variability in estuaries. In: “ Biogeochemistry of Estuarine Sediments”. Unesco, Paris, pp. 171–178.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Bewers, J.M. and P.A. Yeats, 1980: Behaviour of trace metals during estuarine mixing. Proc. SCOR/ACMR/ECOR/IAHS UNESCO/CMG/IABO/IAPSO workshop on River Input to Ocean Systems, Rome, 26–30 March 1979. J.M. Martin, J.D. Burton, D. Eisma, eds. UNEP/UNESCO, 1980, pp. 103–115.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Ahrland, S., 1975: metal complexes present in sea water. In: “The Nature of Sea Water”, E.D. Goldberg, ed. Dahlem Konferenzen, Berlin, pp. 219–244.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Dyrssen, D. and M. Wedborg, 1980: Major and minor elements, chemical speciation in estuarine waters. In: “Chemistry and Biogeochemistry of Estuaries”, E. Olausson and I. Cato, eds. J. Wiley, New York, pp. 71–119.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Turner, D.R., M. Whitfield and A.G. Dickson, 1981: The equilibrium speciation of dissolved components in fresh water and sea water at 25°C and 1 atmosphere pressure. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 45, 855–881.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Whitfield, M., D.R. Turner and A.G. Dickson, 1980: Speciation of dissolved constitutents in estuaries. Proc. SCOR/ACMR/ECOR/IAHS UNESCO/CMG/IABO/IAPSO workshop on River Input to Ocean Systems, Rome, 26–30 March 1979. J.M. Martin, J.D. Burton, D. Eisma, eds. UNEP/UNESCO, 1980, pp. 132–148.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Nieboer, E. and D.H.S. Richardson, 1980: The replacement of the non-descript term “heavy metals” by a biologically and chemically significant classification of metal ions. Environ. Poll. series B, 1, 3–26.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Whitfield, M., 1981: World ocean, mechanism or machination? Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 6, 12–35.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  49. Mantoura, R.F.C., 1981: Organo-metallic interactions in natural waters. In: “Marine Organic Chemistry”, E.K. Duursma and R. Dawson, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Vuceta, J. and J.J. Morgan, 1978: Chemical modelling of trace metals in fresh waters: role of complexation and adsorption. Env. Sci. Technol. 12, 1302–1309.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Davies, J.A. and J.O. Leckie, 1979: Speciation of adsorbed ions at the oxide-water interface. In: “Chemical Modelling in Aqueous Systems”, E.A. Jenne, ed. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C., pp. 299–319.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Davies, J.A. and J.0. Leckie, 1978: Effect of adsorbed complexing ligands on trace metal uptake by hydrous oxides. Environ. Sci. Tech. 12, 1309–1315.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Bourg, A.C.M., 1979: Effect of ligands on the solid-solution interface upon the speciation of heavy metals in aquatic systems. Proc. Internat. Conf. Heavy Metals in the Environment, CEP consultants, Edinburgh, 446–449.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Baccini, P., H. Hohl and T. Bundi, 1978: Phenomenology and modelling of heavy metals distribution in lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20, 1971–1975.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Balistrieri, L., P.G. Brewer and J.W. Murray, 1981: Scavenging residence times of trace metals and surface chemistry of sinking particles in the deep ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 28, no. 2A, Feb. 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Bourg, A.C.M., H. Etcheber and J.M. Jouanneau, 1979: Mobilisation des métaux traces associés aux matières en suspension dans le complexe fluvio-estuarien. Biologie-écologie méditerranéenne 6, 161–166.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Burton, J.D., 1979: Physico-chemical limitations in experimental investigations. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B 286, 443–456.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Turner, D.R. and M. Whitfield, 1979a: The reversible electrodeposition of trace-metal ions from multi-ligand systems. 1. Theory. J. Electroanal. Chem.. 103, 43–60.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Shuman, M.S. and L.C. Michael, 1978: Application of the rotated disk electrode to measurement of copper complex dissociation rate constants in marine coastal samples. Env. Sci. Technol. 12, 1069–1072.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Judson, S., 1968: Erosion of the land (what’s happening to our continents?). Amer. Scientist 56, 514–516.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Chester, R. and S.E. Aston, 1976: The Geochemistry of Deep-Sea Sediments. In: “Chemical Oceanography”, J.P. Riley and R. Chester, eds. 2nd ed., vol. 6, Academic Press, London, pp. 281–390.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Sayles, F.L., 1979: The composition and diagenesis of interstitial solutions. I: Fluxes across the sea water-sediments interface in the Atlantic ocean. Geochim Cosmochim. Acta., 43, 527–545.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Meybeck, M., P. Hubert, J.M. Martin and P. Olive, 1970: Etude par le tritium du mélange des eaux en milieu lacustre et estuarien: application au lac de Genève et Il la Gironde. In: “Isotope Hydrology 1970”, I.A.E.A., Vienna, pp. 523–541.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Martin, J.M. and R. Letoller 1979: Oxygen-18 in estuaries. Nature 282, 292–294.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Stumm, W. and J.J. Morgan, 1970: Aquatic chemistry. New York: Wiley Interscience, pp. 425–428.

    Google Scholar 

  66. O’Kane, J.P., 1978: An estuarine water-quality model in an oscillating constant-volume reference frame. Proc. R. Irish Acad. series A, 78, 99–118.

    Google Scholar 

  67. O’Kane, J.P., 1980: “Estuarine Water Quality Management, with Moving Element Models and Optimization Techniques”. Pitman, London.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Anon., 1973: “Uitgave Vereniging Milieudefensie”. Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Magnusson, B. and S. Westerlund, 1980: The determination of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Baltic sea water. Marine Chem. 8, 231–244.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  70. Dyrssen, D., 1980: Estuarine chemical processes in the Baltic Sea. Comm. Swedish Soc. for Maritime Research in Kalmar, April 26–27, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Olausson, E., O. Gustafsson, T. Melin and R. Svensson, 1977: The current level of heavy metals pollution and eutrophication in the Baltic proper. Medd. fra`h Maringeologiska Laboratoriet, Göteborg 9, 1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Simpson, H.J., R.F. Bopp, B.L. Deck and C.R. Olsen, 1980: Fluxes and behaviour of reactive materials in urban estuaries. Proc. SCOR/ACMR/ECOR/IAHS/UNESCO/CMG/IABO/ IAPSO workshop on River Input to Ocean Systems, Rome, 26–30 March 1979. J.M. Martin, J.D. Burton, D. Eisma, eds. UNEP/UNESCO, 1980, pp. 343–351.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Anon., 1980: “The Global 2000 Report to the President, entering the twenty-first century”. vol. 2, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 305–306.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Meade, R.H., 1980: Man’s influence on the discharge of fresh water, dissolved material and sediments by rivers to the Atlantic coastal zone of the United States. Proc. SCOR/ACMR/ECOR/IAHS/UNESCO/CMG/IABO/IAPSO workshop on River Input to Ocean Systems, Rome, 26–30 March 1979. J.M. Martin, J.D. Burton, D. Eisma, eds. UNEP/UNESCO, 1980, pp. 309–310.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Duinker, J.C., R. Wollast and G. Billen, 1979: Manganese in the Rhine and Scheldt estuaries, Part 2: Geochemical cycling. Est. Coast. Mar. Sci. 9, 727–738.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Martin, J.M., J. Jednacak and V. Pravdic, 1971: The physicochemical aspects of trace elements behaviour in estuarine environments. Thalassia Jugosl. 7, 619–637.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Martin, J.M., V. Nijampurkar and F. Salvadori, 1978: Uranium and thorium isotope behaviour in estuarine systems. In: “Biogeochemistry of Estuarine Sediments”. Unesco, Paris, pp. 111–127.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Cherry, R.D., J.J.W. Higgo and S.W. Fowler, 1978: Zooplankton faecal pellets and element residence times in the oceans. Nature, ( London ), 274, 246–248.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Yamamoto, T., Y. Otsuka, M. Okazaki and K. Okamoto, 1980: A method of data analysis on the distribution of chemical elements in the biosphere. In: “Analytical Techniques in Environmental Chemistry”, J. Albaiges, ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 401–408.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Brewer, P.G. and D.W. Spencer, 1975: Minor element models in coastal waters. In: “Marine Chemistry of the Coastal Environment”, T.M.-Church, ed. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C., pp. 80–96.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Windom, H.L., 1980: Comparison of atmospheric and riverine transport of trace elements to the continental shelf environment. Proc. SCOR/ACMR/ECOR/IAHS/UNESCO/CMG/ IABO/IAPSO workshop on River Input to Ocean Systems, Rome, 26–30 March 1979. J.M. Martin, J.D. Burton, D. Eisma, eds. UNEP/UNESCO, 1980, pp. 360–369.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Duce, R.A., G.L. Hoffman, B. Ray, I.S. Fletcher, G.T. Wallace, J.L. Fasching, S.R. Piotrowicz, P.R. Walsh, E.J. Hoffman, J.M. Miller and J.L. Heffter, 1976: Trace metals in the marine atmosphere: sources and fluxes. In: “Marine Pollutant Transfer”, H.L. Windom and R.A. Duce, eds. Lexington Books, Lexington, Mass. USA, 77–119.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Cambray, R.S., D.F. Jeffries and G. Topping, 1975: An estimate of the input of atmospheric trace elements into the North Sea and the Clyde Sea. (1972–1973), United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Harwell Report. AERE - R 7733, 30 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Fraizier, A., M. Masson and J.C. Guary, 1977: Recherches préliminaires sur le rôle des aérosols le transfert de certains radioéléments du milieu marin au milieu terrestre. J. Rech. Atmos. 11, 49–60.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Cambray, R.S. and J.D. Eakins, 1980: Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 1: Concentrations of plutonium and caesium-137 in environmental samples from West Cumbria and a possible maritime effect. A.E.R.E. Harwell Report R 9807, July 1980, 20 p., H.M.S.O., London.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Martin, J.M., A.J. Thomas and C. Jeandel, 1981: Transfert atmosphérique des radionucléides artificiels de la mer vers le continent. Oceanol. Acta., 4, no. 3, 263–266.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Bostrom, K. and M.N.A. Peterson, 1966: Precipitates from hydrothermal exhalations on the East Pacific Rise. Econ. Geol. 61, 1258–1265.

    Google Scholar 

  88. McCulloch, M.T., R.T. Gregory, G.J. Wasserburg and M.A.J. Taylor, 1981: Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and 180/160 isotopic systematics in an oceanic crustal section: evidence from the Semail ophiolite. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  89. Gregory, R.T. and H.P. Taylor, Jr., 1981: An oxygen isotope profile in a section of Cretaceous oceanic crust, Semail ophiolite, Oman: evidence for 6180-buffering of the oceans by deep (>5 km) sea-water hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  90. Edmond, J.M., C. Measures, R. McDuff, L.H. Chan, R. Collier, B. Grant, L.I. Gordon and J.B. Corliss, 1979: Ridge-crest hydrothermal activity and the balances of the major and minor elements in the ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 46, 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Edmond, J.M., 1980: Ridge crest hot springs. EOS Trans. A.G.U., 21, 129–131.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  92. Maynard, J.B., 1981: Chemical mass-balance between rivers and oceans. Proc. Symp. on “Chemical Cycles in the Evolution of the Earth”, Yellow Springs, Ohio, Sept. 1980 (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  93. Hays, J.D. and W.C. Pitman, III, 1973: Lithospheric plate motion, sea level changes and climatic and ecological consequences. Nature 246, 18–22.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1983 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Martin, JM., Whitfield, M. (1983). The Significance of the River Input of Chemical Elements to the Ocean. In: Wong, C.S., Boyle, E., Bruland, K.W., Burton, J.D., Goldberg, E.D. (eds) Trace Metals in Sea Water. NATO Conference Series, vol 9. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6864-0_16

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6864-0_16

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4757-6866-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4757-6864-0

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive