Judgment and Decision Making Under Time Pressure

Studies and Findings
  • Anne Edland
  • Ola Svenson


The aim of the present chapter is to provide a review of empirical studies involving time pressure, judgment, and decision making, which have been published during the past three decades. The chapter will not cover theoretical approaches to decision making and judgment or biological aspects related to time pressure because these issues are well covered elsewhere in this volume (the chapters by Maule & Svenson; Lundberg; Maule & Hockey). Svenson (1990, 1991) suggests that higher level decision processes involve problem-solving processes, and therefore a few references including time pressure from that research area will also be cited as examples of relevant research.


Time Pressure Decision Strategy Risky Choice Compensatory Rule Deadline Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allwood, C. M. (1984). Error detection processes in statistical problem solving. Cognitive Science, 8, 413–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beach, L. R., and Mitchell, T. R. (1978). A contingency model for the selection of decision strategies. Academy of Management Review, 3, 439–449.Google Scholar
  3. BenZur, H., and Breznitz, S. J. (1981). The effect of time pressure on risky choice behavior. Acta Psychologica, 47, 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Billings, R. S., and Marcus, S. A. (1983). Measures of compensatory and non-compensatory models of decision behavior: Process tracing versus policy capturing. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 31, 331–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J., and Austin, G. A. (1956). A study of thinking. New York: Wiley. Busemeyer, J. R. ( 1985 ). Decision making under uncertainty: A comparison of simple scalabilityGoogle Scholar
  6. fixed sample and sequential sampling model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 11,538–564.Google Scholar
  7. Christensen-Szalanski, J. J. (1980). A further examination of the selection of problem solving strategies: The effects of deadlines and analytic aptitudes. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 25, 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effects of emotions on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66, 183–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edland, A. (1985). Attractiveness judgments of decision alternatives under time stress. Cognition and Decision Research Unit, University of Stockholm, Report No. 21.Google Scholar
  10. Frankenhauser, M. (1979). Psychoneuroendocrine approaches to the study of emotions as related to stress and coping. In H. E. Howe and R. A. Dienstbier (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1978 (pp. 123–161 ). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  11. Holsti, O. R. (1971). Crisis, stress, and decision making. International Social Science Journal, 23, 53–67.Google Scholar
  12. Janis, I. L. (1983). Decision making under stress. In L. Goldberger and S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress (pp. 69–87 ). New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Janis, I. L., and Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice and commitment. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  14. Johnson, E. J., and Payne, J. W. (1985). Effort and accuracy in choice. Management Science, 31, 395–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Keinan, G., Friedland, N., and Ben-Porath, Y. (1987). Decision making under stress: Scanning of alternatives under physical threat. Acta Psychologica, 64, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kruglanski, A. W., and Freund, T. (1983). The freezing and unfreezing of lay inferences: Effects on impression primacy, ethnic stereotyping and numerical anchoring. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 448–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luchins, A. S. (1942). Mechanizations in problem solving: The effect of Einstellung. Psychological Monographs, 54, (Whole No. 248).Google Scholar
  18. Maule, J., and Mackie, P. (1990). A componential investigation of the effects of deadlines on individual decision making. In K. Borchering, O. I. Larichev, and D. M Messick (Eds.), Contemporary issues in decision making (pp. 449–461 ). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  19. Miller, J. G. (1960). Information input overload and psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 695–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Norman, D. A. (1981). Categorization of action slips. Psychological Review, 88, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Olshaysky, R. W. (1979). Task complexity and contingent processing in decision making: A replication and extension. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 24, 300–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Payne, J. W. (1976). Task complexity and contingent processing in decision making: An information search and protocol analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 366–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Payne, J. W., Bettman, J. R., and Johnson, E. J. (1988). Adaptive strategy selection in decision making. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 14, 534–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rasmussen, J., Duncan, K., and Leplat, J. (1987). New technology and human error. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Rizzo, A., Bagnara, S., and Visciola, M. (1988). Human error detection processes. In E. Hollnagel, G. Mancini, and D. Woods (Eds.), Cognitive engineering in complex dynamic worlds (pp. 99114 ). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Rothstein, H. G. (1986). The effects of time pressure on judgment in multiple cue probability learning. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37, 83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schwartz, D. R., and Howell, W. C. (1985). Optional stopping performance under graphic and numeric CRT formatting. Human Factors, 27 (4), 433–444.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, J. F., Mitchell, T. R., and Beach, L. R. (1982). A cost benefit mechanism for selecting problem-solving strategies: Some extensions and empirical tests. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 29, 370–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Svenson, O. (1979). Process descriptions of decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 23, 86–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Svenson, O. (1988). Cognitive psychology, operator behavior and safety in the processing industries with emphasis on nuclear power plant applications. Stockholm University, Department of Psychology, Cognition and Decision Research Unit, Report No 29.Google Scholar
  31. Svenson, O. (1990). Some propositions for the classification of decision situations. In K. Borchering, O. I., Larichev, and D. M. Messick (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Decision Making (pp. 1731 ). Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  32. Svenson, O. (1991). Differentiation and consolidation theory of human decision making. Paper presented at the SPUDM conference, Fribourg, Switzerland, 1991.Google Scholar
  33. Svenson, O., and Edland, A. (1987). Change of preferences under time pressure: Choices and judgments. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 29 (4), 322–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Svenson, O., Edland, A., and Karlsson, G. (1985). The effect of numerical and verbal information and time stress on judgments of the attractiveness of decision alternatives. In L. B. M.thlie and R. Sprague (Eds.), Knowledge representation for decision support systems (pp. 133–144 ). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  35. Svenson, O., Edland, A., and Slovic, P. (1990). Choices between incompletely described alternatives under time stress, Acta Psychologica, 75(2), 153–169.Google Scholar
  36. Wallsten, T. S., and Barton, C. N. (1982). Processing probabilistic multidimensional information for decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology; Learning and Memory and Cognition, 8, 36 1384.Google Scholar
  37. Wright, P. (1974). The harassed decision maker: Time pressure, distraction and the use of evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zakay, D. (1985). Post-decision confidence and conflict experienced in a choice process. Acta Psychologica, 58, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zakay, D., and Wooler, S. (1984). Time pressure, training and decision effectiveness. Ergonomics, 27, 273–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Edland
    • 1
  • Ola Svenson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations