Advertisement

The Interactions among Time Urgency, Uncertainty, and Time Pressure

  • Haleh Rastegary
  • Frank J. Landy

Abstract

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the tempo of life has continually accelerated (McGrath & Kelly, 1986). At the close of the twentieth century, life revolves ever more around the clock, especially in Western cultures Rifkil, in his book Time Wars (1987), proposes that computers are contributing to an exponentially accelerating time orientation. Computer hardware operations can be carried out as fast as billionths of a second, and this capability has set new temporal standards of organizational effectiveness and efficiency. This accelerated time orientation affects every aspect of a work organization. Perhaps the most substantial challenge facing employees as a result of this time orientation is trying to choose between alternative courses of action while under this time pressure. It is likely that time pressure does not affect everyone in the same way. It may prove challenging to one individual and debilitating to another. In fact, temporal orientation has been recognized as one of the fundamental parameters of individual differences (Bluedorn & Denhardt, 1988).

Keywords

Time Pressure Behavior Pattern Occupational Stress Coping Approach Accelerate Pace 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achrol, R. S. (1988). Measuring uncertainty in organizational analysis. Social Science Research, 17, 66–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agor, W. H. (1986). The logic of intuition: How top executives make important decisions. Organizational Dynamics, 14(3), 5–18.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, F. M., and Farris, G. F. (1972). Time pressure and performance of scientists and engineers: A five-year panel study. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 8, 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Averdson, L. A. (1974). Deadlines and organizational behavior: A laboratory investigation of the effect of deadlines on individual task performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stanford University.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, L. J., Dearborn, M., Hastings, J. E., and Hamberger, K. (1984). Type A behavior in women: A review. Health Psychology, 3 (5), 477–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bassett, G. A. (1979). A study of the effects of task goal and schedule choice on work performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 24, 202–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bingham, D., and Hailey, B. J. (1989). The time urgency component of the Type A behavior pattern: Time pressure and performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19(5), 425–432.Google Scholar
  8. Bluedorn, A. C., and Denhardt, R. B. (1988). Time and organizations. Journal of Management, 14(2), 299–320.Google Scholar
  9. Booth-Kewley, S., and Friedman, H. S. (1987). Psychological predictions of heart disease: A quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 101(3), 343–362.Google Scholar
  10. Broadbent, D. E. (1971). Decision and stress. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bronner, R. (1982). Decision making under time pressure. Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  12. Budner, S. (1962). Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality, 30, 2950.Google Scholar
  13. Burnam, M. A., Pennebaker, J. W., and Glass, D. C. (1975). Time consciousness, achievement striving, and the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84(1), 76–79.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, M., March, J. G., and Olson, J. P. (1972). A garbage can model of organizational choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Congelosi, V. E., and Dill, W. R. (1965/1966). Organizational learning: Observations toward a theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 10, 175–203.Google Scholar
  16. Dembroski, T. M., and Czajkowski, S. M. (1989). Historical and current developments in coronary-prone behavior. In A. W. Siegman and T. M. Dembroski (Ed.), In search of coronary-prone behavior: Beyond Type A (pp. 21–39 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  17. Dembroski, T. M., and Williams, R. B. (1989). Definition and assessment of coronary-prone behavior. In N. Schneiderman, R. Kaufmann, and S. M. Weis (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 553–569 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  18. Doob, L. W. (1971). Patterning of time. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Edwards, J. R. (1988) The determinants and consequences of coping with stress. In C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (Eds.), Causes, coping, and consequences of stress at work (pp. 233–263 ). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  20. Edwards, J. R., Baglioni, A. J., Jr., and Cooper, C. L. (1990). Examining relationships among self-report measures of the Type A behavior patterns: The effects of dimensionality, measurement error, and differences in underlying constructs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75 (4), 440–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, G., Palsane, M. N., and Carrere, S. (1987). Type A behavior and occupational stress: A cross-cultural study of blue-collar workers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52 (5), 1002–1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eysenk, M. W. (1983). Anxiety and individual differences. In G.R.J. Hockey (Ed.), Stress and fatigue in human performance. (pp. 273–298 ). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  23. Frankenhauser, M., and Gardell, B. (1976). Underload and overload in working life: Outline of a multidisciplinary approach. Journal of Human Stress, 2, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freedman, J. L., and Edwards, D. R. (1988). Time pressure, task performance, and enjoyment. In J. E. McGrath (Ed.), The social psychology of time (pp. 113–133 ). Newburry Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. French-Belgian Collaborative Group. (1982). Ischemic heart disease and psychological patterns. Advances in cardiology, 29, 25–31.Google Scholar
  26. Friedman, H. S., and Booth-Kewley, S. (1988). Validity of Type A construct. A reprise. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 293–323.Google Scholar
  27. Friedman, M., and Rosenman, R. H. (1959). Association of specific overt behavior pattern with increases in blood cholesterol, blood clotting time, incidence of arcus senilis and clinical coronary artery disease. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 169, 1286 1296.Google Scholar
  28. Friedman, M., and Rosenman, R. H. (1974). Type A Behavior and your heart. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  29. Ganster, D. C., Sime, W. E., and Mayes, B. T. (1989). Type A behavior in the work setting: A review and some new data. In A. W. Siegman and T. M. Dembroski (Eds.), In search of coronary-prone behavior: Beyond Type A (pp. 169–194 ).Google Scholar
  30. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ganster, D. C., Schaubroeck, J., Sime, and W. E., Mayes, B. T. (1991). The nomological validity of the Type A personality among employed adults. Journal of Applied Psychology,76(1), 143–168.Google Scholar
  31. Gastorf, J. W. (1980). Time urgency of the Type A behavior pattern. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48 (2), 299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gifford, W. E., Bobbitt, H. R., and Slocum, J. W., Jr. (1979). Message characteristics and perceptions of uncertainty by organizational decision makers. Academy of Management Journal, 22(3), 458–481.Google Scholar
  33. Glass, D. C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress, and coronary disease. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.Google Scholar
  34. Glass, D. C., Snyder, M. L., and Hollis, J. F. (1974). Time urgency and the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4 (2), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hall, D. T., and Lawler, E. E. (1970). Job characteristics and pressures and the organizational integration of professionals. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haynes, S. G., Feinleib, M., and Kannel, W. B. (1980). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham study: III. Eight-year incidence of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 3, 37–58.Google Scholar
  37. Holsti, O. R. (1971). Crisis, stress, and decision making. International Social Science Journal, 23, 53–67.Google Scholar
  38. Howard, J. H., Rechnitzer, P. A., and Cunningham, D. A. (1975). Coping with job tension-effective and ineffective methods. Public Personnel Management, 4, 317–326.Google Scholar
  39. Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., and Preston, C. (1982). Occupational stress, Type A behavior, and physical well being. Academy of Management Journal, 25, 373–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Janis, I. L. (1982). Stress, attitudes, and decisions. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  41. Janis, I. L., and Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  42. Jauch, L. R., and Kraft, K. L. (1986). Strategic management of uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 11(4), 777–790.Google Scholar
  43. Jenkins, D. C., Zyzanski, S. J., and Rosenman, R. H. (1979). Jenkins activity survey manual (Form C). New York: The Psychological Corp.Google Scholar
  44. Kahn, R. L., and Byosiere. (1992). Stress in organizations. In M. Dunnette and L. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 571–650 ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists. Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  45. Kelly, J. R., and McGrath, J. E. (1985). Effects of time limits and task types on task performance and interaction of four person groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 395–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Keinan, G. (1987). Decision making under stress: Scanning of alternatives under controllable and uncontrollable threats. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 639–644.Google Scholar
  47. Landy, F. J., Rastegary, H., and Motowidlo, S. (1987). Human-computer interactions in the work place: Psychosocial aspects of VDT use. In M. Frese, E. Ulich, and W. Dzida (Eds.), Psychological issues of human-computer interaction in the workplace, (pp. 3–22 ). New York: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  48. Landy, F. J. ( 1990, March). Work design and stress. Paper presented at APA/NIOSH Conference, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  49. Landy, F. J., Rastegary, H., and Motowidlo, S. (1987). Human-computer interactions in the work place: Psychosocial aspects of VDT use. In M. Frese, E. Ulich, and W. Dzida (Eds.), Psychological issues of human-computer interaction in the workplace, (pp. 3–22 ). New York: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  50. Landy, F. J., Rastegary, H., Thayer, J., and Colvin, C. (1991). Time urgency: The construct and its measurement. Journal for Applied Psychology, 76, 644–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Latham, G. P., and Locke, E. A. (1975). Increasing productivity with decreasing time limits: A field replication of Parkinson’s Law. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 524–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Locke, E. A., and Latham, G. P. (1984). Goal setting for individuals, groups, and organizations. Chicago: Science Research Associates.Google Scholar
  53. McGrath, J. E., and Rotchford, N. L. (1983). Time and behavior in organizations. In L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (vol. 5, pp. 57–101 ). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.Google Scholar
  54. MacCrimmon, K. R., and Taylor, R. N. (1976). Decision making and problem solving. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1397–1453 ). Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  55. Mathews, K. A. (1982). Psychological perspectives on the Type A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 293–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mathews, K. A. (1988). Coronary heart disease and Type A behavior: Update on and alternative to the Booth-Kewley and Friedman (1987) quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 373380.Google Scholar
  57. McGrath, A. J. (1976). Stress and behavior in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. (pp. 1351–1395 ). Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  58. McGrath, J. E., and Rotchford, N. L. (1983). Time and behavior in organizations. In L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (vol. 5, pp. 57–101 ). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.Google Scholar
  59. McGrath, J. E., and Kelly, J. R. (1986). Time and human interaction: Toward a social psychology of time. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. McMichael, A. J. (1978). Personality, behavioral, and situational modifiers of work stressors. In C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (Eds.), Stress at work, (pp. 127–147 ). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  61. Nutt, P. (1984). Types of organizational decision processes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 414–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Payne, R. (1988). Individual differences in the study of occupational stress. In C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (Eds.), Causes, coping and consequences of stress at work (pp. 209–232 ). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  63. Pitz, G. F., and Sachs, N. J. (1984). Judgment and decision: Theory and application. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 139–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Price, V.A. (1982). Type A behavior pattern: A model for research and practice. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  65. Rosenman, R. H., Friedman, M., Straus, R., Wurm, M., Jenkins, C. D., and Messinger, H. B. (1966). Coronary heart disease in the Western Collaborative group study: A follow-up experience of two years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 195, 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Radford, K. J. (1989) Individual and small group decisions. Springer-Verlag, NY: Captus University Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rifldil, J. (1987). Time wars: The primary conflict in human history. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  68. Rosenman, R. H., Friedman, M., Straus, R., Wurm, M., Jenkins, C. D., and Messinger, H. B. (1966). Coronary heart disease in the Western Collaborative group study: A follow-up experience of two years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 195, 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sauter, S., Hurrell, J. J., and Cooper, C. L. (1989). Job control and worker health. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Stevenson, M. K., Busemeyer, J. R., and Naylor, J. C. (1990). Judgment and decision-making theory. In M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 283–374 ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  71. Schriber, J. B. (1985). An exploratory study of the temporal dimensions of work organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: The Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, CA.Google Scholar
  72. Schriber, J. B., and Gutek, B. A. (1987). Some time dimensions of work: Measurement of an underlying aspect of organization culture. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72 (4), 642–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stevenson, M. K., Busemeyer, J. R., and Naylor, J. C. (1990). Judgment and decision-making theory. In M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 283–374 ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  74. Schuler, R. S., and Jackson, S. E. (1986). Managing stress through PHRM practices: An uncertainty interpretation. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 4, 183–224.Google Scholar
  75. Shalon, M., and Strube, M. J. (1988). Type A behavior and emotional responses to uncertainty: A test of the self-appraisal model. Motivation and Emotion, 12 (4), 385–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., and Lichtenstein, S. (1977). Behavioral decision theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 28, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smock, C. D. (1955). The influence of psychological stress on the “intolerance of ambiguity.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 50, 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stevenson, M. K., Busemeyer, J. R., and Naylor, J. C. (1990). Judgment and decision-making theory. In M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 283–374 ). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  79. Strube, M. J. (1987). A self-appraisal model of the Type A behavior pattern. In R. Hogan and W. H. Jones (Eds.), Perspectives in Personality (vol. 2, pp. 201–250 ). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.Google Scholar
  80. Strube, M. J., and Boland, S. M. (1987). Type A behavior pattern and the self-evaluation of abilities: Empirical tests of the self-appraisal model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52 (5), 956–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tucker, L. R. (1966). Learning theory and multivariate experiment: Illustration by determination of generalized learning curves. In R. B. Cattell (Ed.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (pp. 476–501 ). Chicago: Rand McNally and Company.Google Scholar
  82. Taylor, R. N. (1975). Age and experience as determinants of managerial information processing and decision making performance. Academy of Management Journal, 18, 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tucker, L. R. (1966). Learning theory and multivariate experiment: Illustration by determination of generalized learning curves. In R. B. Cattell (Ed.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (pp. 476–501 ). Chicago: Rand McNally and Company.Google Scholar
  84. Wright, P. (1974). The harassed decision maker: Time pressures, distractions, and the use of evidence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 555–561.Google Scholar
  85. Wright, L. (1988). The Type A behavior pattern and coronary artery disease: Quest for the active ingredients and the elusive mechanism. American Psychologist, 43(1), 2–14.Google Scholar
  86. Yamold, P. R., and Grimm, L. G. (1982). Time urgency among coronary-prone individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (3), 175–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yamold, P. R., and Mueser, K. T. (1984). Time urgency of Type A individuals: Two replications. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 59, 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yamold, P. R., Mueser, K. I., and Lyons, J. S. (1988). Type A behavior, accountability, and work rate in small groups. Journal of Research in Personality, 22 (3), 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yates, J. F. (1990). Judgment and decision making. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  90. Zakay, D., and Wooler, S. (1984). Time pressure, training and decision effectiveness. Ergonomics, 27 (3), 273–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zyzanski, S. J., and Jenkins, C. D. (1970). Basic dimensions within the coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 22, 781–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haleh Rastegary
    • 1
  • Frank J. Landy
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Applied Behavioral SciencesPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations