Advertisement

The Courtship of European Newts: An Evolutionary Perspective

  • T. R. Halliday

Abstract

A full understanding of a biological system requires parallel consideration of both the form and the function of that system. This basic approach, the essence of post-Darwinian biology, has been widely applied to the morphology and physiology of animals and in recent years to some aspects of their behavior, notably by Niko Tinbergen and his students (Baerends et al. 1976). Rather little use of this dual approach has been made in the analysis of the causal mechanisms underlying behavior, however, although McFarland (1976) has shown how such an approach can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms determining the precise order in which behavior patterns occur. It is the purpose of this paper to show how an understanding of the causation of courtship behavior in the smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris, which has been the subject of extensive experimental analysis, can be enhanced by a consideration of various functional aspects of the behavior.

Keywords

Static Display Conspecific Male Secondary Sexual Character Heterospecific Male Tail Beat 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahrenfeldt, R. H. 1960. Mating behaviour of Euproctus asper in captivity. Brit. J. Herpetol. 2: 194–197.Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, S. J. 1972. The evolution of courtship behavior in salamanders. Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, S. J. 1976. Sexual behavior, sexual interference and sexual defense in the salamanders Ambystoma maculatum, Ambystoma tigrinum and Plethodon jordani. Z. Tierpsychol. 42: 247–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, W. 1848. Description of a species of newt. The Zoologist 6:2198.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, R. W., and D. L. Jameson. 1966. Premating isolating mechanisms in sympatric and allopatric Hyla regilla and Hyla californiae. Evolution 20: 533–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baerends, G., C. Beer and A. Manning (eds.) 1976. Function and evolution in behaviour. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Baltzer, F. 1938. Die Fruhenwicklung des Bastards Triton cris- tatus♀ x Triton palmatus ♂. Rev. suisse Zool. 45: 391–394.Google Scholar
  8. Bataillon, E. 1927. Les croisements chez les Urodeles et l’andro- genêse hybride. C. r. Seanc. mec. Biol. Paris 97:1715–1717.Google Scholar
  9. Bateman, A. J. 1948. Intra-sexual selection in Drosophila. Heredity 2:349–368.Google Scholar
  10. de Bedriaga, J. 1895. On the Pyrenean Newt, Molge aspera Duges. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. (1895):150–161.Google Scholar
  11. Bell, G. A. C. 1970. The distribution of amphibians in Leicestershire. Trans. Leics. Lit. and Phil. Soc. 64:122–143.Google Scholar
  12. Bell, G. A. C. 1973. The life of the Smooth Newt, Triturus vulgaris Linn. D. Phil. thesis, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Blair, W. F. 1964. Isolating mechanisms and inter-species interactions in anuran amphibians. Q. Rev. Biol. 39:334–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Callan,H.G.,and H.Spurway. 1951. A study of meiosis in inter-racial hybrids of the newt, Triturus cristatus. J. Genet. 50: 235–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooke,A.S.,and W.G.Fulford. 1971 Observations on the feeding behavior of a blind Warty newt (Triturus cristatus).Brit.J.Herpetol. 4: 216–217.Google Scholar
  16. Cullen, J. M. 1966. Ritualisation of animal activities in relation to phylogeny, speciation and ecology. Reduction of ambiguity through ritualisation. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Ser. B 251:363–374.Google Scholar
  17. Cullen, J. M. 1972. Some principles of animal communication. IN R. A. Hinde (ed.), Non-verbal communication. Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cummings, B. F. 1911. Some features of behavior in the courtship display of the Palmate newt (Molge palmata Schneid.). J. Anim. Behay. 1: 305–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis, J. W. F., and P. O’Donald. 1976. Sexual selection for a handicap: a critical analysis of Zahavi’s model. J. Theor. Biol. 57: 345–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis, W. C., and V. C. IaiLLy. 1964. Courtship behavior and reproductive isolation in the species of Taricha (Amphibia, Caudata). Copeia (1964): 601–610.Google Scholar
  21. Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 3rd ed.Google Scholar
  22. Finkler, W. 1923. Analytical studies on the factors causing the sexual display in the Mountain newt (Triton alpestris). Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser. B 95: 356–364.Google Scholar
  23. Foxon, G. E. H. 1964. Blood and respiration. IN: J. A. Moore (ed.), Physiology of the amphibia. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Freytag, G. E. 1950. tTber F1 Bastarde zwischen Fadenmolch (Triturus helveticus helveticus) und Teichmolch (Triturus vulgaris) insbesondere über Lantz’ Bastarde mit T. v. meridionalis. Abh. Ber. Mus. Magdeburg 8:2.Google Scholar
  25. Freytag, G. E. 1970. Beobachtungen zum Paarungsverhalten von Cynops pyrrhogaster (Amphibia, Salamandridae). Salamandra 6: 15–17.Google Scholar
  26. Gauss, G. H. 1961. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Balzverhaltens einheimischer Mölche. Z. Tierpsychol. 18: 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grant, P. R. 1972. Convergent and divergent character displacement. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 4: 39–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halliday. T. R. 1974. Sexual behaviour of the Smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris (Urodela, Salamandridae). J. Herpetol. 8: 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Halliday. T. R. 1975a. An observational and experimental study of sexual behaviour in the Smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris (Amphibia: Salamandridae). Anim. Behay. 23:291–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Halliday, T. R. 1975b. On the biological significance of certain morphological characters in males of the Smooth Newt Triturus vulgaris and of the Palmate Newt Triturus helveticus (Urodela: Salamandridae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 56: 291–300.Google Scholar
  31. Halliday, T. R. 1976. The libidinous newt. An analysis of variations in the sexual behaviour of the male Smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris. Anim. Behay. 24: 398–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Halliday, T. R. 1977. The effect of experimental manipulation of breathing behaviour on the sexual behaviour of the Smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris. Anim. Behay. 25:39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Halliday, T. R., and H. P. A. Sweatman. 1976. To breathe or not to breathe; the newt’s problem. Anim. Behay. 24:551–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Halliday, T. R., and A. Worsnop. 1977. Correlation between activity and breathing rate in the Smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris. J. Herpetol. 11: 244–246.Google Scholar
  35. Hamburger, V. 1935. Malformations of hindlimbs in species hybrids of Triton taeniatus, Leyd. (and Triton palmatus, Duges) x Triton cristatus, Taur. J. Exp. Zool. 73:319–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamburger, V. 1936. The larval development of reciprocal species hybrids of Triton taeniatus, Leyd. (and Triton palmatus, Duges) x Triton cristatus, Taur. J. Exp. Zool. 73: 319–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hilton, W. A. 1902. A structural feature connected with the mating of Diemyctylus viridescens. Am. Nat. 34: 643 - 651.Google Scholar
  38. Himstedt, W. 1967. Beobachtungen zum Paarungsverhalten des Feuersalamanders. Zool. Anz. 175: 295–300.Google Scholar
  39. Himstedt, W. 1968. Die Reaktionen des Teichmolchs (Triturus vulgaris) auf intermittierende Lichtreize. Verh. der Deut. Zool. Ges. Innsbruck 1968: 357–361.Google Scholar
  40. Himstedt, W. 1969. Zur Funktion eines Reizfiltermechanismus im visullen System von Urodelen. Z. vergl. Physiol. 62:197-204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hinde, R. A. 1959. Behaviour and speciation in birds and lower vertebrates. Biol. Rev. 34:85–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hinde, R. A., and N. Tinbergen. 1958. The comparative study of species-specific behaviour. IN: A. Roe and G. G. Simpson (eds.), Behaviour and evolution. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  43. Houston, A. I., T. R. Halliday and D. J. McFarland. 1977. Towards a model of the courtship of the Smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris, with special emphasis on problems of observability in the simulation of behaviour. Med. Biot. Eng. 15: 49–61.Google Scholar
  44. Huxley, J. 1966. A discussion on ritualization of behaviour in animals and man. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Ser. B 251:249–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. de l’Isle, A. 1862. Notice zoologique sur un nouveau Batracien Urodele de France (Triton blasii). Ann. Sci. Nat. 17: 363–371 (4th ser., zool.).Google Scholar
  46. de l’Isle, A. 1872. De l’hybridation chez les amphibies. Ann. Sci. Nat. 17 (5th ser., paleontol.).Google Scholar
  47. Jordan, E. 0. 1893. The habits and development of the newt (Diemyctylus viridescens). J. Morphol. 8: 269–366.Google Scholar
  48. Kawamura, T., and S. Sawada. 1959. On the sexual isolation among different species and local races of Japanese newts. J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ. Ser. B, Div. 1 18: 17–30.Google Scholar
  49. Klinge, W. 1915. Triton pyrrhogaster. Wschr. Aquar. Terrar. Knde. 12:427–431.Google Scholar
  50. Lantz, L. A. 1947. Hybrids between Triturus cristatus Taur. and Triturus marmoratus Tatr. Proc. zool. Soc. Lend. 117:247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lantz, L. A., and H. G. Callan. 1954. Phenotypes and spermatogenesis of interspecific hybrids between Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus. J. Genet. 52: 165–185.Google Scholar
  52. Liley, N. R. 1966. Ethologira l isolating mechanisms in four sympatric species of Poeciliid fishes. Behaviour, Supplement 13.Google Scholar
  53. Mancino, G. 1959. Ta struttura dell’ovario nell’ibrido Triturus helveticus x Triturus vulgaris a. Boll. Zool. 26: 317–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mancino, G. 1961. Anomalie meiotiche nella spermargenesi dell’ ibrido Triturus italicus ♀ x Triturus vulgaris ♂. Boll. Zool. 28:691–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Matthes, E. 1924a. Das Geruchsvermogen von Triton beim Aufenthalt unter Wasser. Z. vergl. Physiol. 1:57–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Matthes, E. 1924b. Das Geruchsvermogen von Triton beim Aufenthalt an Land. Z. vergl. Physiol. 1:590–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Matthes, E. 1927. Der Einfluss des Mediumwechsels auf das Geruchsvermogen von Triton. Z. vergl. Physiol. 5:83–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Maynard-Smith, J. 1976. Sexual selection and the handicap principle. J. Theor. Biol. 57:239–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mayr, E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. McFarland, D. J. 1976. Form and function in the analysis of behaviour sequences. IN: P. P. G. Bateson and R. A. Hinde (eds.), Growing points in ethology, Cambridge Univ. Press, Chap. 2.Google Scholar
  61. Mertens, R., and L. Muller. 1940. Die Emphibien und Reptilien Europas. Abh. senchekburg naturf. Ges. 451: 1–56.Google Scholar
  62. Nelson, J. B. 1959. The courtship behaviour of Triturus cristatus. Honours thesis, St. Andrews Univ.Google Scholar
  63. Nelson, J. B. 1960. Courtship display in the Italian Crested newt (Triturus cristatus carnifex). Biol. J. ( St. Andrews Univ. ) 1: 6–9.Google Scholar
  64. Oeser, R. 1951. Haltung and Zucht des Triturus vittatus Gray. Aquar. Terrar. Zeit. 4:103–106.Google Scholar
  65. Owen, D. F. 1955. The food of the heron Ardea cinerea in the breeding season. Ibis 97: 276–295.Google Scholar
  66. Pariser, K. 1932. Verschiebung des Geschlechtsverhältnisses bei kunstlich del genero Triton bastarden. Biol. Zentralbi. 52: 654–659.Google Scholar
  67. Pariser, K. 1935. Deformidades y otras anomalias en hibridos in-terspecificos del género Triton (Anfibios). Revta. esp. Biol. 4:5–12.Google Scholar
  68. Pariser, K. 1936. El desarrollo y la relaciôn numérica entre los sexos en los hibridos interspecificos obtenidos por fecundation artificial en el género Triton (Molge). Revta. esp. Biol. 5: 11–93.Google Scholar
  69. Parker, G. A. 1970. Sperm competition and its evolutionary consequences in the insects. Biot. Rev. 45:525–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perdeck, A. C. 1958. The isolating value of specific song patterns in two sibling species of grasshoppers (Chorthippus brunneus and C. biguttulus). Behaviour 12:1–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Poll, H. 1909. Mischlinge von Triton cristatus Laur. und Triton vulgaris L. Biol. Zentralbi. 29:30–31.Google Scholar
  72. Prechtl, H. F. R. 1951. Zur Paarungsbiologie einiger Molcharten. Z. Tierpsychol. 8: 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Razoumowsky. 1788. Histoire naturele du Jurat 1. Tausanne. Rusconi, M. 1821. Armours des salamandres aquatiques. Milan.Google Scholar
  74. Salthe, S. N. 1967. Courtship patterns and the phylogeny of the urodeles. Copeia (1967): 100–117.Google Scholar
  75. Salthe, S. N., and J. S. Mecham. 1974. Reproductive and courtship patterns. IN: B. Lofts (ed.), Physiology of the amphibia, Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Schmidtler, J. J., and F. F. Schmidtler. 1970. Morphologie, Biologie und Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen von Neurergus strauchii aus der Turkei (Amphibia: Salamandridae). Senckenberg. Biol. 51:41–53.Google Scholar
  77. Smith, M. 1969. The British amphibians and reptiles. Collins, London. 4th edition.Google Scholar
  78. Spurway, H. 1953. Genetics of specific and subspecific differ-ences in European newts. Symp. Soc. Exptl. Biol. 7:200–237.Google Scholar
  79. Spurway, H., and H. G. Callan. 1950. Hybrids between some members of the rassenkreis Triturus cristatus. Experientia 6:95.Google Scholar
  80. Spurway, H., and H. G. Callan. 1960. The vigour and male sterility of hybrids between the species Triturus vulgaris and Triturus helveticus. J. Genet. 57: 84–116.Google Scholar
  81. Steward, J. W. 1969. The tailed amphibians of Europe. David and Charles, Newton Abbot.Google Scholar
  82. Taylor, R. H. R. 1948. The distribution of reptiles and amphibies in the British Isles, with notes on species recently introduced. Brit. J. Herpetol. 1: 1–38.Google Scholar
  83. Thorn, R. 1968. Les salamandres d’Europe, d’Asie, et d’Afrique du Nord. Encyclopedie pratique du naturaliste 35, Paris.Google Scholar
  84. Thorpe, W. H. 1972. The lower vertebrates and the invertebrates. IN: R. A. Hinde (ed.), Non-verbal communication, Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  85. Tinbergen, N. 1953. Social behaviour in animals. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  86. Tinbergen, N. 1959. Comparative studies of the behaviour of gulls (Laridae): a progress report. Behaviour 15: 1–70.Google Scholar
  87. Tinbergen, N., and J. J. Ter Pelkwijk. 1938. De Kleine Watersalamander. Levende Nat. 43: 232–237.Google Scholar
  88. Trivers, R. L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection.Google Scholar
  89. IN: B. Campbell (ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man, Aldine Atherton, Chicago.Google Scholar
  90. Tsutsui, Y. 1931. Notes on the behaviour of the common Japanese newt, Diemictylus pyrrhogaster Boie. I. Breeding habit. Mem. Coll. Sci., Kyoto Imp. Univ. Ser. B 7:159–179.Google Scholar
  91. Twitty, V. C. 1966. Of scientists and salamanders. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  92. Wake, D. B., and N. Ozeti. 1969. Evolutionary relationships in the family Salamandridae. Copeia (1969): 124–137.Google Scholar
  93. White, M. J. D. 1946. The spermatogenesis of hybrids between Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus (Urodela). J. Exp. Zool. 102: 179–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wilz, K. J. 1970. Reproductive isolation in two species of Stickleback (Gasterosteidae). Copeia (1970): 587–590.Google Scholar
  95. Witherby, H. F., F. C. R. Jourdain, N. F. Ticehurst and B. W. Tucker. 1938. The handbook of British birds. Vols. 1–5, Witherby, London.Google Scholar
  96. Wolterstorff, W. 1908. Nochmals Kummers Bastarde. Wschr. Aquar.>>u. Terrarienk 5, Supplement “Lacerta” 2: 8.Google Scholar
  97. Wolterstorff, W. 1925. Katalog der Amphibiensammlung im Mus. Nat.NNu. Heimatk. Magdeburg. Abh. Mus. Nat. -u. Heimatk. Magdeburg 4:259–289.Google Scholar
  98. Wright, S. 1941. On the probability of fixation of reciprocal translocations. Am. Nat. 75: 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zahavi, A. 1975. Mate selection-a selection for a handicap. J. Theor. Biol. 53:205–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. Halliday
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyAnimal Behaviour Research GroupOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations