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Biochemical Mechanisms Underlying Primary Degeneration of Axons

  • Peter S. Spencer
  • Matthew S. Miller
  • Stephen M. Ross
  • Bradley W. Schwab
  • Mohammad I. Sabri

Abstract

Every student of neurobiology is familiar with the specialized functional architecture of the “typical” mammalian neuron with its isolated somal synthesis center that is responsible for maintaining the entire volume of its elongated axon. Less well appreciated are the extraordinary liabilities that this unusual cellular arrangement imparts to long axons in abnormal metabolic states. First, there is a relatively huge surface area for entry of toxic agents. Second, maintenance and restoration of damaged axoplasmic components depend to a large extent on a rate-limited axonal transport system that shuttles materials to and from a remote source of supply in the neuronal soma. Third, available energy supplies in the axon must be divided among maintenance of bidirectional axon transport, impulse propagation, and other energy-dependent functions. Taken together, these special features of axons offer a basis to explore why axonal degeneration is encountered in so many neurological conditions of diverse etiology. Cardinal among these are the primary axonopathies of peripheral nerve and spinal cord, expressed clinically as polyneuropathy or spinocerebellar degeneration, associated with nutritional deficiency, specific intoxication, or inherited metabolic abnormalities. Our purpose here is to identify the common features of the axonopathies, consider what little is known of their underlying biochemical mechanisms, and provide a cogent framework for future research to elucidate the molecular basis of axonal degeneration.

Keywords

Axon Degeneration Flavine Adenine Dinucleotide Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Axonal Neuropathy Tropical Sprue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter S. Spencer
    • 1
  • Matthew S. Miller
    • 1
  • Stephen M. Ross
    • 1
  • Bradley W. Schwab
    • 1
  • Mohammad I. Sabri
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of NeurotoxicologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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