Hard Questions and Tentative Answers about the 3M

  • John C. Mowen


The chapter first summarizes the meta-theory and the major findings presented in this book. Next, it evaluates whether the 3M makes a contribution to the fields of consumer behavior and personality psychology. The chapter then identifies and discusses five possible criticisms of the 3M. A particular focus of the chapter concerns the status of the 3M as a theory. Finally, eight arenas for future research are presented.


Personality Trait Sport Participation Task Orientation Motivational Network Empirical Regularity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Mowen
    • 1
  1. 1.Oklahoma State UniversityUSA

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