Advertisement

Coagulopathic States

  • Charise T. Petrovitch
  • John C. Drummond

Abstract

The normal hemostatic mechanism involves three sequential processes: primary hemostasis, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Primary hemostasis leads to the formation of a friable platelet plug that temporarily arrests bleeding at sites of vascular injury. Coagulation reinforces that plug by forming a tough fibrin clot. Following tissue repair, fibrinolysis leads to clot lysis and the restoration of flow through the vessel.

Keywords

Factor VIII Tissue Factor Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Fresh Freeze Plasma Fibrinogen Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Vischer UM, de Moerloose P. von Willebrand factor: from cell biology to the clinical management of von Willebrand’s disease. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 1999;30:93–109.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sadler JE, Matsushita T, Dong Z, Tuley EA, Westfield LA. Molecular mechanism and classification of von Willebrand disease. Thromb Haemost 1995; 74: 161–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warrier AI, Lusher JM. DDAVP: a useful alternative to blood components in moderate hemophilia A and von Willebrand disease. J Pediatr 1983; 102: 228–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McLoughlin TM, Greilich PE. Blood: Hemostasis, transfusion, and alternatives in the perioperative period. In: Lake CL, Moore RA, eds. Blood: Hemostasis, Transfusion, and Alternatives in the Perioperative Period. New York: Raven Press, 1995: 25–70.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DeLoughery TG. Management of bleeding with uremia and liver disease. Cuff Opin Hematol 1999; 6: 329–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lethagen S. Desmopressin-a haemostatic drug: state-of-the-art review. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl 1997; 14: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bednar MM, Gross CE. Antiplatelet therapy in acute cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1999; 30: 887–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mehta JL, Kitchens CS. Pharmacology of platelet-inhibitory drugs, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic agents. Cardiovasc Clin 1987; 18: 163–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harker LA, Fuster V. Pharmacology of platelet inhibitors. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986; 8: 21B - 32B.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schussheim AE, Fuster V. Thrombosis, antithrombotic agents, and the antithrombotic approach in cardiac disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1997; 40: 205–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Messmore H, Upadhyay G, Fand S, Parachuri R, Wehrmacher W, Godwin J. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in cardiovascular surgery. In: Pifarre R, ed. New Anticoagulants for the Cardiovascular Patient. Philadelphia: Hanley Belfus, 1997: 83–94.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schwarz RP. The preclinical and clinical pharmacology of novastan (Argatroban). In: Pifarre R, ed. New Anticoagulants for the Cardiovascular Patient. Philadelphia: Hanley Belfus, 1997: 231–49.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganjoo AK, Harloff MG, Johnson WD. Cardiopulmonary bypass for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: management with a heparin-bonded circuit and enoxaparin. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996; 112: 1390–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hiippala ST, Myllylä GJ, Vahtera EM. Hemostatic factors and replacement of major blood loss with plasma-poor red cell concentrates. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 360–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mammen EF. Coagulation defects in liver disease. Med Clin North Am 1994; 78: 545–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rocha E, P6ramo JA, Montes R, Panizo C. Acute generalized, widespread bleeding. Diagnosis and management. Haematologica 1998; 83: 1024–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carey MJ, Rodgers GM. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and laboratory aspects. Am J Hematol 1998; 59: 65–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carr ME, Jr. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy. J Emerg Med 1987; 5: 311–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lechner K, Kyrle PA. Antithrombin III concentrates-are they clinically useful? Thromb Haemost 1995; 73: 340–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Consensus conference. Fresh-frozen plasma. Indications and risks. JAMA 1985; 253: 551–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reiner A. Massive transfusion. In: Spiess BD, Counts R, Gould SA, editors. Perioperative Transfusion Medicine. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1998: 351–64.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stehling L. Blood component therapy. In: Lake CL, Moore RA, eds. Blood: Hemostasis, Transfusion, and Alternatives in the Perioperative Period. New York: Raven Press, 1995: 277–88.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mannucci P. Clinical evaluation of viral safety of coagulation factor VIII and IX concentrates. Vox Sang 1993; 64: 197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vinazzer H. Clinical use of antithrombin III concentrates. Vox Sang 1987; 53: 193–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Angelos MG, Hamilton GC. Coagulation studies: prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1986; 4: 95–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charise T. Petrovitch
    • 1
  • John C. Drummond
    • 2
  1. 1.Providence HospitalUSA
  2. 2.University of California and VA Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations