Cancers of the Urinary Tract

  • Seth P. Lerner
  • James Eastham


In this chapter, we will review the most common malignancies encountered in the urinary tract. Carcinomas of the kidney, bladder, and prostate account for 41% of cancers diagnosed annually in men and 4% in women and for 18% and 3% of cancer deaths, respectively. Dramatic improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment have taken place in the last decade. A tumor suppressor gene implicated in familial and sporadic renal cell carcinoma has been cloned, and immunotherapy with biologic response modifiers now offers hope to patients with metastatic cancer. Outpatient systemic chemotherapy may help patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney and bladder to live longer. Continent urinary diversion provides significant improvement in quality of life for patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Molecular staging of bladder cancer is now possible with the application of immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections to detect mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Prostate cancer is now the leading cause of cancer in men over the age of 50 and the second leading cause of cancer death. Prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasound have revolutionized diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer. As new technology proliferates and our understanding of neoplastic transformation evolves, we are poised to accept the challenge of not only cure of urinary tract cancer but prevention as well.


Prostate Cancer Renal Cell Carcinoma Bladder Cancer Radical Prostatectomy Renal Pelvis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Grawitz VP: Die sogenannte lipome der niere. Pathol Anat 93: 39–63, 1883.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Makay B, Ordonez NG, Khoursland J: The ultrastructure and immunocytochemistry of renal cell carcinoma. Ultrastruct Pathol 11: 483–502, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wallace AC, Nairn RC: Renal tubular antigens in kidney tumors. Cancer 29: 977–981, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fromowitz FB, Bard RH: Clinical implications of pathologic subtypes in renal cell carcinoma. Semin Urol 8: 31–50, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bennington JL, Laubscher FA: Epidemiologic studies on carcinoma of the kidney. Cancer 21: 1069–1071, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johanssen SK: Carcinogenicity of analgesics: long-term treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with phenacetin, phenazone, caffeine, and paracetamol (acetamidophen). Int J Cancer 27: 521–529, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lornoy W, Becaus I, De Vleeschouwer M: Renal cell carcinoma, a new complication of analgesic nephropathy. Lancet 1: 1271–1272, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McLaughlin JK, Mandel JS, Blot WJ, Schuman LM, Mehl ES, Fraumeni JE, Jr: A population-based case-control study of renal cell carcinoma. J Nati Cancer Inst 72: 275–284, 1984.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malker HR, Malker BK, McLaughlin JK, Blot WJ: Kidney cancer among leather workers. Lancet 1: 56, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kolonel LN: Association of cadmium with renal cancer. Cancer 37: 1782–1787, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yu MC, Mack TM, Hanisch R, Cicioni C, Henderson BE: Cigarette smoking, obesity, diuretic use, and coffee consumption as risk factors for renal cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 77: 351–356, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirkman H, Bacon RL: Renal adenomas and carcinomas in diethylstilbesterol treated male golden hamsters. Anat Rec 103: 475–476, 1949.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bretan PN Jr, Busch MP, Hricak H, Williams RD: Chronic renal failure: a significant risk factor in the development of acquired renal cysts and renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 57: 1871–1879, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishikawa I: Renal cell carcinoma in chronic hemodialysis patients-a 1990 questionnaire study in Japan. Kidney Int 43:S-167-S-169, 1993.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fallon B, Williams RD: Renal cancer associated with acquired cystic disease of the kidney and chronic renal failure. Semin Urol 7: 228–236, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reiter RE, Zbar B, Linehan WM: Molecular genetic studies of renal cell carcinoma: Potential biologic and clinical significance for genitourinary malignancy. In: PC Walsh, AB Retik, TA Stamey, ED Vaughan Jr, eds, Campbell’s Urology, 6th ed, update 7. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1–15, 1993.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glenn GM, Choyke PL, Zbar B, Linehan WM: von HippelLindau disease: clinical aspects and molecular genetics. In: EE Anderson, ed, Problems in Urologic Surgery: Benign and Malignant Tumors of the Kidney. JB Lippincott Philadelphia, pp 312–330, 1990.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Latif F, Troy K, Gnarra J: Identification of the von HippelLindau disease tumor suppressor gene. Science 260: 1317 1320, 1993.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parker SL, Tong T, Bolden S, Wingo PA: Cancer Satistics, 1997. CA 47: 5–27, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ries LAG, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Hartman AM, Edwards BK: Cancer Statistics Review 1973–88. National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 91–2789, 1991.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Castallenos RD, Aron BS, Evans AT: Renal adenocarcinoma in children: incidence therapy, and prognosis. J Urol 111: 534–537, 1974.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cheng WS, Farrow GM, Zincke H: The incidence of multicentricity in renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 146:1221–1223, 1991.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mukamel E, Konichersky M, Engelstein D, Servadio C: Incidental small renal tumors accompanying clinically overt renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 140: 22–24, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thoenes W, Storkel S, Rumpelt HJ: Histopathology and classification of renal cell tumors (adenomas, oncocytomas, and carcinomas): the basic cytological and histopathological elements and their use for diagnostics. Pathol Res Pract 181: 125143, 1986.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fuhrman SA, Lasky LC, Limas C: Prognostic significance of morphologic parameters in renal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 6: 655–663, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weiss MA, Mills SE, eds: Genitourinary Tract Pathology. Gower Medical Publishing, New York, 1993.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aizawa S, Suzuki M, Kikuchi Y, Nikaido T, Matsumoto K: Clinicopathological study on small renal cell carcinomas with metastases. Acta Pathol Jpn 37: 947–954, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bell ET: Classification of renal tumors with observations on the frequency of various types. J Urol 39: 238–243, 1938.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zbar B, Tory K, Merino M, Schmidt L, Glenn G, Choyke P, Walther MW, Lerman M, Linehan WM: Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 151: 561–566, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lieber MM: Renal oncocytoma: prognosis and treatment. Eur Urol 18 (Suppl 2): 17–21, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Klein MJ, Valensi QJ: Proximal tubular adenomas of kidney with so-called oncocytic features. Cancer 38: 906–914, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lieber MM, Tomera KM, Farrow GM: Renal oncocytoma. J Urol 125: 481–485, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    O’Toole KM, Brown M, Hoffman P: Pathology of benign and malignant kidney tumors. Urol Clin North Am 20: 193–206, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Skinner DG, Colvin RB, Vermillion CD, Pfister RC, Leadbetter WF: Diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma-a clinical and pathologic study of 309 cases. Cancer 28: 1165–1177, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gelb AB, Shibuya RB, Weis LM, Medeiros LJ: Stage I renal cell carcinoma-a clinicopathologic study of 82 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 17: 275–286, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goncharenko V, Gerlock AJ Jr, Kadir S, Turner B: Incidence and distribution of venous extension in 70 hypernephromas. Am J Radiol 133: 263–265, 1979.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Butler RB, Laucirica R, Scardino PT, Lerner SP: Renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava thrombus: common presentation by an uncommon mechanism. Presented at the American Urological Association South Central Section Meeting, Acapulco, Mexico, October 5, 1993.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Skinner DG, Pritchett TR, Lieskovsky G, Boyd SD, Stiles QR: Vena cava involvement by renal cell carcinoma-surgical resection provides meaningful long-term survival. Ann Surg 210: 387–394, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marshall FF, Powell KC: Lymphadenectomy for renal cell carcinoma: anatomical and therapeutic considerations. J Urol 128: 677–681, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tostain JL, Perraud Y, Gilloz A: Anatomical considerations in lymph node dissection for renal cell carcinoma (abstract 926). J Urol 149: 444A, 1993.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wood DP Jr: Role of lymphadenectomy in renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 18: 421–426, 1991.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Giuliani L, Giberti C, Martorana G, Rovida S: Radical extensive surgery for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 143: 468–474, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bennington JL, Beckwith JB, eds: Tumors of the Kidney, Renal Pelvis, and Ureter. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, 1975.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gibbons RP, Montie JE, Correa RJ Jr, Mason JT: Manifestations of renal cell carcinoma. Urology 8: 201–206, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bosniak MA: The current radiologic approach to renal cysts. Radiology 158: 1–10, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bosniak MA: Problems in the radiologic diagnosis of renal parenchymal tumors. Urol Clin North Am 20: 217–230, 1993.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gottesman JE, Crawford ED, Grossman HB, Scardino PT, McCracken JD: Infarction-nephrectomy for metastatic renal carcinoma-Southwest Oncology Group Study. Urology 25: 248–251, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Klimberg I, Hunter P, Hawkins IF, Drylie DM, Wajsman Z: Preoperative angioinfarction of localized renal cell carcinoma using absolute ethanol. J Urol 133: 21–24, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Swanson DA, Johnson DE, Von Eschenbach AC, Chuang VP, Wallace S: Angioinfarction plus nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma-an update. J Urol 130: 449–452, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Robson CJ, Churchill BM, Anderson W: The results of radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 101: 297–301, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beahrs OH, Henson DE, Hutter RVP, Kennedy BJ, eds: Manual for Staging of Cancer. JB Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1992.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Esen A, Ozen H, Ayhan A, Ergen A, Tasar C, Remzi F: Serum ferritin: a tumor marker for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 145: 1134–1137, 1991.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gingrich JR, Thrasher JB, Paulson DF: Radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a contemporary review of presentation, complications and outcome of 356 cases (abstract 932) J Urol 149: 446A, 1993.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bassil B, Dosoretz DE, Prout GR: Validation of the tumor, nodes and metastases classification of renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 134: 450–454, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Licht MR, Novick AC: Nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 149: 1–7, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Steinbach F, Stockle M, Muller SC, Thuroff JW, Melchior SW, Stein R, Hohenfellner R: Conservative surgery of renal cell tumors in 140 patients: 21 years of experience. J Urol 148: 24–30, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Licht MR, Novick AC, Goormastic M: Nephron sparing surgery in incidental versus suspected renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 152: 39–42, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    deKernion JB, Belldegrun A: Renal tumors. In: PC Walsh, AB Retik, TA Stamey, ED Vaughan Jr, eds, Campbell’s Urology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1053–1093, 1992.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Geboers ADH, Debruyne FMJ: Surgery in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Contemp Urol 6 (6): 37–48, 1994.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Smith E, Kursh ED, Makley J, Resnick MI: Treatment of osseous metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 148: 784–787, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rosenberg SA, Yang JC, Topalian SL, Schwartzentruber DJ, Weber JS, Parkinson DR, Seipp CA, Einhorn JH, White DE: Treatment of 283 consecutive patients with metastatic mela noma or renal cell cancer using high-dose bolus interleukin 2. JAMA 271: 907–913, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    deKernion JB, Berry D: The diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 45: 1947–1956, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McLaughlin JK, Silverman DT, Hsing AW, Ross RK, Schoenberg JB, Yu MC, Sternhagen A, Lynch CF, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr: Cigarette smoking and cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter. Cancer Res 52: 254–257, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ross RK, Pagnini-Hill A, Landolph J, Gerkins V, Henderson BE: Analgesics, cigarette smoking and other risk factors for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter. Cancer Res 49: 1045–1048, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jensen OM, Knudsen JB, McLaughlin JK, Sorensen BL: The Copenhagen case-control study of renal pelvis and ureter cancer: role of smoking and occupational exposures. Cancer 41: 557–561, 1988.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    McRedie M, Stewart JH, Day NE: Different role for phenacetin and paracetomol in cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis. Int J Cancer 53: 245–249, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lomax-Smith JD, Seymour AE: Neoplasia in analgesic nephropathy: a urothelial field change. Am J Surg Pathol 4: 565–572, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Richie JP: Carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. In: DG Skinner, G Lieskovsky, eds, Genitourinary Cancer. WB Saunders Philadelphia, pp 323–336, 1988.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Catalona WJ: Urothelial tumors of the renal pelvis and ureter. In: PC Walsh, AB Retik, TA Stamey, ED Vaughn Jr, eds, Campbell’s Urology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1137–1146, 1992.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Abdel-Razzak OM, Bagley D: Clinical experience with flexible ureteropyeloscopy. J Urol 148: 1788–1792, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bagley DH, Huffman JL, Lyon ES: Flexible ureteropyeloscopy: diagnosis and treatment in the upper urinary tract. J Urol 138: 280–285, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Streem SB, Pontes EJ: Percutaenous management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 135:773–775, J Urol 122: 163–164, 1979.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Corrado F, Mannini D, Ferri C, Corrado G, Bertoni F, Bacchini P, Lieber MRI, Song JM: The prognostic signifi cance of DNA ploidy pattern in transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter: continuing follow-up. Eur Urol 21: 48–50, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Babaian RJ: Primary carcinoma of the upper urinary tract epithelium: an overview. In: ED Crawford, S Das, ed, Current Genitourinary Cancer Surgery. Lea and Feiberger, Philadelphia, pp 88–96, 1990.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mahadevia PS, Karwa GL, Koss LG: Mapping of urothelium in carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter. Cancer 51: 890–897, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cummings KB: Nephroureterectomy: rationale in the management of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract Urol Clin North Am 7: 569–578, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Streem SB, Novick AC: How to plan for managing upper tract. tract TCC. Contemp Urol 4 (6): 41–54, 1992.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cozad SC, Smalley SR, Austenfeld M, Noble M, Jennings S, Reymond R: Adjuvant radiotherapy in high stage transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24: 743–745, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Logothetis CJ, Dexeus FH, Finn L, Sella A, Amato RJ, Ayala AG, Kilbourn RG: A prospective randomized trial comparing MVAC and CISCA chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial tumors. J Clin Oncol 8: 1050–1055, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cancer Facts and Figures-1992. American Cancer Society, Atlanta GA, 1992.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Auerbach O, Garfinkel L: Histologic changes in the urinary bladder in relation to cigarette smoking and use of artificial sweeteners. Cancer 64: 983–987, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wynder EL, Goldsmith R: The epidemiology of bladder cancer-a second look. Cancer 40: 1246–1268, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kantor AF, Hartge P, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF, Jr: Familial and environmental interactions in bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer 35: 703–706, 1985.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rehn L: Blasengeschwulste bei Fuchsin-Arbeitern. Arch Klin Chir 50: 588, 1895.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shinka T, Sawada Y, Morimoto S, Fujinaga T, Nakamura J, Ohkawa T: Clinical study of urothelial tumors of dye workers in Wakayama City. J Urol 146: 1504–1507, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Evans DAP, Manley KA, McKusick VA: Genetic control of isoniazid metabolism in man. Br Med J 2: 485–491, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Deguchi T, Mashimo M, Suzuki T: Correlation between acetylator phenotypes and genotypes of polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase in human liver. J Biol Chem 265: 12757–12760, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ketterer B: Protective role of glutathione and glutathione transferases in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 202: 343–361, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bell DA, Taylor JA, Paulson DF, Robertson CN, Mohler JL, Lucier GW: Genetic risk and carcinogen exposure: a com-mon inherited defect of the carcinogen-metabolism gene glutathione S-transferase Ml (GSTM1) that increases susceptibility to bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 1159–1164, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Piper JN, Matanoski GM, Tonascia T: Bladder cancer in young women. Am J Epidemiol 123: 1033–1042, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fairchild WV, Spence CR, Solomon HD, Gangai MP: The incidence of bladder cancer after cyclophosphamide therapy. 1986.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kantor AF, Hartge P, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr: Epidemiologic characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the bladder. Cancer Res 48: 3853–3855, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Miyao N, Tsai YC, Lerner SP, Olumi AF, Spruck CH III, Gonzalez-Zuleta M, Nichols PW, Skinner DG, Jones PA: Role of chromosome 9 in human bladder cancer. Cancer Res 53: 4066–4077, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Spruck CH III, Ohneseit PF, Gonzalez-Zulueta M, Esrig D, Miyao N, Tsai YC, Lerner SP, Schmutte C, Yang AS, Cote R, Dubeau L, Nichols PW, Hermann GG, Steven K, Horn T, Skinner DG, Jones PA: Two molecular pathways to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cancer Res 784–788, 1994.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mostofi FK, Davis CJ Jr, Sesterhenn IA: Pathology of tumors of the urinary tract. In: DG Skinner, G Lieskovsky, eds, Diagnosis and Management of Genitourinary Cancer. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 83–117, 1988.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Melicow MM: Tumors of the urinary drainage tract: urothelial tumors. J urol 54: 186–193, 1945.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sidransky D, Frost P, Von Eschenbach A, Oyasu R, Preisinger AC, Vogelstein B: Clonal origin of bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 326: 737–740, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Marshall VF: Relation of preoperative estimate to pathologic demonstration of extent of vesical neoplasms. J Urol 68: 714723, 1952.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Skinner DG: Current state of classification and staging of bladder cancer. Cancer Res 37: 2838–2842, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Heney NM: Natural history of superficial bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 19: 429–433, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hasui Y, Osada Y, Kitada S, Nishi S: Significance of invasion to the muscularis mucosae on the progression of superficial bladder cancer. Urology 43: 782–786, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Younes M, Sussman J, True LD: The usefulness of the level of the muscularis mucosae in the staging of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Cancer 66: 543548, 1990.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lamm DL: Carcinoma in situ. Urol Clin North Am 19: 499508, 1992.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Amberson JB, Laino JP: Image cytometric deoxyribonucleic acid analysis of urine specimens as an adjunct to visual cytology in the detection of urothelial cell carcinoma. J Urol 149: 42–45, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Murphy WM, Emerson LD, Chandler RW, Moinuddin SM, Soloway MS: Flow cytometry versus urinary cytology in the evaluation of patients with bladder cancer. J Urol 136: 815819, 1986.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Badalament RA, Kimmel M, Gay H, Cibas ES, Whitmore WF Jr, Fair WR, Melamed MR: The sensitivity of flow cytometry compared with conventional cytology in the detection of superficial bladder cancer. Cancer 59: 2078–2085, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bretton PR, Herr HW, Kimmel M, Fair WR, Whitmore WF Jr, Melamed MR: Flow cytometry as a predictor of response and progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. J Urol 141: 1332 1336, 1989.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lamm DL: Long-term results of intravesical therapy for superficial bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 19: 573–580, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Richie JP: Intravesical chemotherapy—treatment selection, techniques, and results. Urol Clin North Am 19: 521–527, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dalton JY, Wientjes MG, Badalament RA, Drago JR, Au JL-S: Pharmacokinetics of intravesical Mitomycin C in superficial bladder cancer patients. Cancer Res 51: 5144–5152, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Garnick MB, Griffin JD, Sack MJ, Blum RM, Israel M, Frei EI: Phase II evaluation of N-trifluoracetyladriamycin-14valerate (AD-32). In: FM Muggia, CW Young, SK Carter, eds, Anthracycline Antibiotics in Cancer Therapy. Developments in Oncology, vol 10. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 541–548, 1982.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lamm DL, Blumenstein BA, Crawford ED, Montie JE, Scardino P, Grossman B, Stanisic TH, Smith JA Jr, Sullivan J, Sarosdy MF, Crissman JD, Coltman CA: A randomizedtrial of intravesical doxorubicin and immunotherapy with Bacille Calmette-Guerin for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder. N Engl J Med 325: 1205–1209, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Glashan RW: A randomized controlled study of intravesical alpha-2b-interferon in carcinoma in situ of the bladder. J Urol 144: 658–6661, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sarosdy MF, Lamm DL, Williams RD, Moon TD, Flanigan RC, Crawford ED, Wilks NE, Earhart RH, Merritt JA: Phase 1 trial of oral bropiramine in superficial bladder cancer. J Urol 147: 31–33, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G: Management of invasive and high-grade bladder cancer. In: DG Skinner, G Lieskovsky, eds, Diagnosis and Management of Genitourinary Cancer. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 295–312, 1988.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lerner SP, Skinner E, Skinner DG: Radical cystectomy in regionally advanced bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 19: 713–724, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lerner SP, Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G, Boyd SD, Groshen SL, Ziogas A, Skinner E, Nichols P, Hopwood B: The rationale for en bloc pelvic lymph node dissection for bladder cancer patients with nodal metastases: long-term results. J Urol 149: 758–765, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Skinner DG, Daniels JR, Russell CA, Lieskovsky G, Boyd SD, Nichols P, Kern W, Sakamoto J, Krailo M, Groshen S: The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective comparative trial. J Urol 145: 459–467, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stockle M, Meyenburg W, Wellek S, Voges G, Gertenbach U, Thuroff JW, Huber C, Hohenfellner R: Advanced bladder cancer (Stages pT3b, pT4a, pN1 and pN2): improved survival after radical cystectomy and 3 adjuvant cycles of chemotherapy. Results of a controlled prospective study. J Urol 148: 302–307, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Sternberg CN, Arena MG, Calabresi F, DeCarli P, Platania A, Zeuli M, Giannarelli D, Cancrini A, Pansadoro V: Neoadjuvant M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) for infiltrating transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cancer 72: 1975–1982, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Scher HI, Kantoff PW: Chemotherapy for muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 6: 169–178, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Van der Werf-Messing B: Cancer of the urinary bladder treated by interstitial radium implant. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 4: 373–378, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wesson MF: Radiation therapy in advanced bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 19: 725–734, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Miller LS: Bladder cancer: superiority of preoperative irradiation and cystectomy in clinical stages B2 and C. Cancer 39: 973–980, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kaufman DS, Shipley WU, Griffin PP, Heney NM, Althausen AF, Efird JT: Selective bladder preservation by combination treatment of invasive bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 329: 1377–1382, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Given RW, Wajsman Z: Bladder sparing multimodality treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer—a five year folow-up (abstract 901). J Urol 151: 453A, 1994.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Steinberg GD, Trump DL, Cummings KB: Metastatic bladder cancer—natural history, clinical course, and consideration for treatment. Urol Clin North Am 19: 735–746, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sternberg CN, Scher HI: Advances in the treatment of urothelial tract tumors. Urol Clin North Am 14: 373–387, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sternberg C, Yagoda A, Scher HI, Watson RC, Ahmed T, Weiselberg LR, Geller N, Hollander PS, Herr HW, Sogani PC, Morse MJ, Whitmore WF: Preliminary results of M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) for transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. J Urol 133: 403–407, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sternberg CN, Yagoda A, Scher HI, Watson RC, Geller N, Herr HW, Morse MJ, Sogani PC, Vaughan ED, Bander N, Weiselberg L, Rosado K, Smart T, Lin S-Y, Penenberg D, Fair WR, Whitmore WF Jr: Methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin for advanced transtional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Cancer 64: 2448–2458, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Harker GW, Meyers FJ, Freiha FS, Palmer JM, Shortliffe LD, Hannigan JF, McWhirter KM, Torti FM: Cisplatin methotrexate, and vinblastine (CMV): an effective chemotherapy regimen for metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract-a Northern California Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 3: 1463–1470, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Loehrer PJ Sr, Einhorn LH, Elson PJ, Crawford ED, Kuebler P, Tannock I, Raghavan D, Stuart-Harris R, Sarosdy MF, Lowe BA, Blumenstein B, Trump D: A randomized comparison of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol 10: 1066–1073, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Seidman AD, Scher HI, Gabrilove JL, Bajorin DF, Motzer RJ, O’Dell M, Curley T, Dershaw DD, Quinlivan S, Tao Y, Fair WR, Begg C, Bosl GJ: Dose-intensification of MVAC with recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as initial therapy in advanced urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 11: 408–414, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Logothetis CJ, Dexeus FH, Sella A, Amato RJ, Kilbourn RG, Finn L, Gutterman JU: Escalated therapy for refractory urothelial tumors: methotrexate-vinblastine-doxorubicincisplatin plus unglycosylated recombinant human granulocytye-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Natl Cancer Inst 82: 667–672, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Bricker EM: Bladder substitution after pelvic evisceration. Surg Clin North Am 30: 1511–1521, 1950.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gerber A: Improved quality of life following a Kock continent ileostomy. West J Med 133: 95–96, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Boyd SD, Feinberg SM, Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G, Baron, D, Richardson J: Quality of life survey of urinary diversion patients: comparison of ileal conduits versus Kock ileal reservoirs. J Urol 138: 1386–1389, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Jones MA, Breckman B, Hendry WF: Life with an ileal conduit: results of questionnaire surveys of patients and urological surgeons. Br J Urol 52: 21–25, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    McLeod RS, Fazio VW: Quality of life with the continent ileostomy. World J Surg 8: 90–95, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Boyd SD, Lieskovsky G, Skinner DG: Kock pouch bladder replacement. Urol Clin North Am 18: 641–648, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Stenzl A, Draxl H, Hernegger B, Bartsch G: Localization study of bladder cancer in the female: can urethral segments safely be spared at radical cytectomy? (abstract 989). J Urol 151: 475A, 1994.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Stein JP, Cote R, Freeman JA, Esrig D, Skinner EC, Boyd SD, Lieskovsky G, Skinner DG: Lower urinary tract reconstruction in women following cystectomy for pelvic malignancy: a pathological review of female cystectomy specimens (abstract 308). J Urol 151: 304A, 1994.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Esrig D, Elmajian D, Freeman JA, Nichols P, Groshen S, Chen S-C, Skinner DG, Jones P, Cote RJ: p53 nuclear accumulation and tumor progression in organ confined bladder cancer. (abstract 860). J Ural 151: 442A, 1994.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sarkis AS, Dalbagni G, Cordon-Cardo C, Zhang Z-F, Sheinfeld J, Fair WR, Herr HW, Reuter VE: Nuclear overexpression of p53 protein in transitional cell bladder carcinoma: a marker for disease progression. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 53–59, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sarkis AS, Dalbagni G, Cordon-Cardo C, Melamed J, Zhang Z-F, Sheinfeld J, Fair WR, Herr HW, Reuter VE: Association of p53 nuclear overexpression and tumor progression in carcinoma in situ of the bladder. J Urol 152: 388–392, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cordon-Cardo C, Wartinger D, Petrylak D, Dalbagni G, Fair WR, Fuks Z, Reuter VE: Altered expression of the retinoblastoma gene product: prognostic indicator in bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 84: 1251–1256, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Bringuier PP, Umbas R, Schaafsma E, Karthaus HFM, Debruyne, FMJ, Schalken JA: Decreased E-cadherin immunoreactivity correlates with poor survival in patients with bladder tumors. Cancer Res 53: 3241–3245, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Jaeger TM, Weidner N, Chew K, Moore DH, Kerschmann RL, Waldman FM, Carroll PR: Tumor angiogenesis and lymph node metatasis in invasive bladder carcinoma (abstract 482). J Urol 151: 348A, 1994.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Nguyen M, Watanabe H, Budson AE, Richie JP, Folkman J: Elevated levels of the angiogenic peptide basic fibroblast growth factor in urine of bladder cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 241–242, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Seidman H, Mushinski MH, Gelb SK, Silverberg E: Probabilities of eventually developing or dying of cancer-United States, 1985. CA 35: 36–56, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Steinberg GD, Carter BS, Beaty TH, Childs B, Walsh PC: Family history and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 17: 337–347, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Spitz MR, Currier RD, Fueger JJ, Babaian J, Newell GR: Familial patterns of prostate cancer: a case-control analysis. J Urol 146: 1305–1307, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Carter BS, Bova S, Beaty TH, Steinberg GD, Childs B, Isaacs WB, Walsh PC: Hereditary prostate cancer: epidemiologic and clinical features. J Ural 150: 797–802, 1993.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    SEER Program: Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States,1973–1981. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, NIH Pub. No. 85–1837, 1984.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Coetzee GA, Ross, RK: Re: Prostate cancer and the androgen receptor. J Natl Cancer Inst 86: 872–873, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Ross RK, Bernstein L, Lobo RA, Shimizu H, Stanczyk FA, Pike MC, Henderson BE: 5-alpha-reductase activity and risk of prostate cancer among Japanese and US white and black males. Lancet 339: 887–889, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Henchetnchette CL, Schwartz GG: Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer 70: 2861–2869, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gleason DF, Mellinger GT: The Veteran’s Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group: prediction of prognosis for prostatic carcinoma by combined histological grading and clinical staging. J Urol 111: 58–64, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    McNeal JE, Kindrachuk RA, Freiha FS, Bostwick DG, Redwine EA, Stamey TA: Patterns of progression in prostate cancer. Lancet 1: 60–63, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Watson RA, Tang DB: The predictive value of prostatic acid phosphatase as a screening test for prostatic cancer. N Engl J Med 303: 497–499, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Wang MC, Valenzuela LA, Murphy GP, Chu TM: Purification of a human prostate specific antigen. Invest Urol 17:159163, 1979.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hara M, Inorre T, Fukuyama T: Some physicochemical characteristics of gamma-seminoprotein, an antigenic component specific for human seminal plasma. Jpn J Leg Med 25: 32 2324, 1971.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Gerber GS, Chodak GW: Digital rectal examination in the early detection of prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 17: 739–744, 1990.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Chodak GW, Keller P, Schoenberg HW: Assessment of screening for prostate cancer using the digital rectal examination. J Urol 141: 1136–1138, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lee F, Littrup PJ, Torp-Pedersen ST, Mettlin C, McHugh TA, Gray JM, Kumasaka GH, McLeary RD: Prostate cancer: comparison of transrectal US and digital rectal examination for screening. Radiology 168: 389–394, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, Dodds KM, Coplen DE, Yuan JJ, Petros JA, Andriole GL: Measurement of prostate-specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 324: 1156–1161, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Brawer MK, Chetner MP, Beatie J, Buchner DM, Vessella RL, Lange PH: Screening for prostatic carcinoma with prostate specific antigen. J Urol 147: 841–845, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hudson MA, Migliore P, Weinberg A, Hedrick T, Wargo M, Scardino PT: Use of digital rectal exam, transrectal ultrasonography and serum PSA in prostate cancer screening (abstract 676). J Urol 145: 381A, 1991.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Krahn MD, Mahoney JE, Eckman MH, Trachtenberg J, Pauker SG, Detsky AS: Screening for prostate cancer-a decision analytic view. JAMA 272: 773–780, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Fleming C, Wasson JH, Albertson PC, Barry MJ, Wennberg JE: A decision analysis of the treatment strategies for clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA 269: 2650–2658, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Johansson J-E, Adami H-O, Andersson S-O, Bergstrom R, Holmberg L, Krusemo UB: High 10-year survival rate in patients with early, untreated prostate cancer. JAMA 267: 2191–2196, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Chodak GW, Thisted RA, Gerber GS, Johansson J-E, Adolfsson J, Jones GW, Chisholm GD, Moskovitz B, Livne PM, Warner J: Results of conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 330: 242–248, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lerner SP, Seale-Hawkins C, Carlton CE Jr, Scardino PT: The risk of dying of prostate cancer in patients with clinically localized disease. J Urol 146: 1040–1045, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Whitmore WF Jr: Hormone therapy in prostate cancer. Am J Med 21: 697–713, 1956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Shabsigh R, Carter SSC, Egawa S, Wright CD, Carlton CE Jr, Scardino PT: Transrectal ultrasound and/or digitial guided biopsy of the prostate. (abstract 449). J Urol 141: 282A, 1989.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hodge KK, McNeal JE, Terris MK, Stamey TA: Random systematic versus directed ultrasound guided transrectal core biopsies of the prostate. J Urol 142: 71–75, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Scardino PT: The prognostic significance of acid phosphatase levels in the upper range of normal (abstract 356) J Urol 133: 202A, 1985.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Chybowski FM, Larson Keller JJ, Bergstralh EJ, Oesterling JE: Predicting radionuclide bone scan findings in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated prostate cancer: prostate specific antigen is superior to all other clinical parameters. J Urol 145: 313–318, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Gervasi LA, Mata JA, Easley JD, Wilbanks JH, Seale-Hawkins C, Carlton CE Jr, Scardino PT: Prognostic significance of lymph nodal metastases in prostate cancer. J Urol 142: 332–336, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Morton RA, Steiner MS, Walsh PC: Cancer control following anatomical radical prostatectomy. J Urol 145: 1197–1200, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Carlton CE Jr, Scardino PT: Long-term results after combined radioactive gold seed implantation and external beam radiotherapy for localized prostatic cancer. In: DS Coffey, MI Resnick, FA Dorr, JP Karr, eds, A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Controversies in the Management of Prostate Cancer. Plenum, New York, pp 109–121, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Catalona WJ: Patient selection for, results of, and impact on tumor resection of potency-sparing radical prostatectomy. Urol Clin North Am 17: 819–826, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Goad JR, Rogers E, Ohori M, Boone TB, Scardino PT: Incontinence after radical prostatectomy in 315 patients: the outcome and risk factors (abstract 1044). J Urol 151: 488A, 1994.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Fitzgerald KB, Goad JR, Collini P, Kassabian V, Scardino PT: Declining intraoperative blood loss during radical prostatectomy: is autologous blood donation necessary? (abstract 661). J Urol 149: 378A, 1993.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Lange PH, Lightner DJ, Medini E, Reddy PK, Vessella RL: The effect of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy in patients with elevated prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol 144: 927–932, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Schild SE, Wong WW, Grado GL, Buskirk SJ, Robinow JS, Frick LM, Ferrigni RG: Radiotherapy for isolated increases in serum prostate-specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy. Mayo Clin Proc 69: 613–619, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Bagshaw MA: Radiation therapy for cancer of the prostate. In: DG Skinner, G Lieskovsky, eds, Diagnosis and Management of Genitourinary Cancer. WB Saunders, philadelphia, pp 425–445, 1988.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Lerner SP, Groshen SL, Seale-Hawkins C, Rogers E, Carlton CE Jr, Scardino PT: Fifteen year survival and recurrence rates after radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer (abstract 416). J Urol 145: 316A, 1991.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Whitmore WF Jr, Hilaris B, Sogani P, Herr H, Batata M, Rair W: Interstitial irradiation using I-125 seeds. Proc Clin Biol Res 243B: 177–195, 1987.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Denis L, Smith P, de Moura C, Newling D, Bono A, Keuppens F, Mahler C, Robinson M, Sylvester R, De Pauw M, Vermeylen K, Ongena P: Total androgen ablation: European experience. Urol Clin North Am 18: 65–73, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Crawford ED, Nabors WL: Total androgen ablation: American experience. Urol Clin North Am 18: 55–64, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Kuban DA, Schellhammer PF, El-Mandi AM: Hemibody irradiation in advanced prostatic carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 18: 131–138, 1991.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    LaRocca RV, Cooper MR, Uhrich M, Danesi R, Walther MM, Linehan WM, Meyers CE: Use of suramin in treatment of prostatic carcinoma refractory to conventional hormonal manipulation. Urol Clin North Am 18: 123–130, 1991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seth P. Lerner
    • 1
  • James Eastham
    • 1
  1. 1.Scott Department of UrologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations