Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Stephen Mark Olmstead
  • Joe Venzor
  • David P. Huston


Systemic lupus erythematosis is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology (1–3). Clinical features include fatigue, fever, dermatitis, photosensitivity, alopecia, arthritis, serositis, hematologic abnormalities, mucosal ulcerations, Raynaud’s phenomenon, neurological disease, and glomerulonephritis. Serologic features include false-positive VDRL, circulating immune complexes, depressed complement levels, and antibodies to nuclear constituents, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. The diagnosis should be made if a patient fulfills four or more of the criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology (4). Although genetic (5), hormonal (6), and environmental (7) factors have been implicated in the etiology and modification of disease activity, immunologic abnormalities are postulated as essential in the pathogenesis of disease (8–14).


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Lupus Nephritis Lupus Patient Congenital Heart Block Lupus Nephritis Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Mark Olmstead
    • 1
  • Joe Venzor
    • 2
  • David P. Huston
    • 2
  1. 1.GarlandUSA
  2. 2.Immunology Section, Department of MedicineBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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