Advertisement

Error Concealment for MPEG-2 Video

  • Susanna Aign
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter the problem of error concealment for MPEG-2 compressed video bitstreams applied to the digital TV-broadcasting is examined and a number of different error concealment approaches are considered. More specifically, temporal, spatial, and combinations of these approaches are investigated. In addition, a method for faster re-synchronization is examined. Simulation results are shown that compare these approaches both objectively and subjectively for different bit error rates. Furthermore, error concealment techniques and experimental comparisons are shown for MPEG-2 scalable bitstreams. For these simulations it is assumed that the base layer is error-free and the enhancement layer is error-prone.

Keywords

Motion Vector Error Detection Minimum Mean Square Error Packet Error Rate Enhancement Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    G. Aartsen, R.H.J.M. Plompen, and D.E. Boekee. Error resilience of a video codec for low bitrates. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing ICASSP’88, New York, USA. April 1988, pp. 1312–1315.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. Aign and K. Fazel. Error detection, concealment measures in MPEG-2 video decoder. In Proceedings International Workshop on HDTV’94, Turin, Italy, October 1994.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. Aign and K. Fazel. Temporal, spatial error concealment techniques for hierarchical MPEG-2 video codec. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Communications ICC’95, Seattle, USA, vol. III, June 1995, pp. 1778–1783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    S. Aign. Adaptive temporal, spatial error concealment measures in MPEG2 video decoder with enhanced error detection. In Biglieri, E. and Luise, M. (Eds.). Proceedings 7th Thyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications, Signal Processing in Telecommunications, Springer-Verlag, Viareggio, Italy, September 1995, pp. 112–123.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    S. Aign. Error concealment, early re-synchronization, and iterative decoding for MPEG-2. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Communications ICC’97, Montréal, Canada, vol. III, June 1997, pp. 1654–1658.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    R.E. Blahut. Theory and Practice of Error Control Codes, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1984.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    C.Le Buhan. Software embedded data retrieval and error concealment scheme for MPEG-2 video sequences. In Proceedings Conference on Electronic Imaging, Digital Video Compression: Algorithm and Technologies SPIE’96, San Jose, California, vol. 2668, February 1996, pp. 384–391.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    E.R. Davies. Machine Vision, Academic Press Inc., San Diego, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Digital broadcasting systems for television, sound and data services; Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for 11/12 GHz satellite services“, ETS 300 421, 1994.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Digital broadcasting systems for television, sound and data services; Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for terrestrial systems“, prETS 300 744, 1995.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Digital broadcasting systems for television, sound and data services; Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for cable systems“, ETS 300 429, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Feng, K.-T. Lo, H. Mehrpour, and A.E. Karbowiak. Loss recovery techniques for transmission of MPEG video over ATM networks. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Communications ICC’96, Dallas, USA, vol. III, June 1996, pp. 1406–1410.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    C.L. Fernandez, A. Basso, and J.P. Hubaux. Error concealment and early resynchronization techniques for MPEG-2 video streams damaged by transmission over ATM networks. In Proceedings SPIE’96, San Jose, California, vol. 2668, February 1996, pp. 372–383.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. Ghanbari and V. Seferidis. Cell-loss concealment in ATM video codecs. In IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, June 1993, pp. 238–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. Hagenauer and P. Höher. A Viterbi algorithm with soft-decision outputs and its applications. In IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference GLOBECOM’89,Dallas, Texas, November 1989, pp. 47.1.1–47.1.7.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    P. Haskell and D. Messerschmitt. Resynchronization of motion compensated video affected by ATM cell loss. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing ICASSP’92, vol. 3, 1992, pp. 545–548.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    S.S. Hemami and H.Y. Meng. Spatial and temporal video reconstruction for non-layered transmission. In Proceedings Fifth International Workshop on Packet Video Visicom’93, March 1993.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    K.-H. Jung and C.W. Lee. Projection-based error resilience technique for digital HDTV. In Proceedings HDTV-Workshop’94, Turin, Italy, October 1994.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    W. Kwok and H. Sun. Multi-directional interpolation for spatial error concealment. In IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 39, no. 3, August 1993, pp. 455–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. Lee, J.S. Youn, S.H. Jang, and S.H. Jang. Transmission error detection, resynchronization, and error concealment for MPEG video decoder. In Proceedings SPIE’93, vol. 2094, 1993, pp. 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    W. Luo and M.E1 Zarki. Analysis of error concealment schemes for MPEG2 video transmission over ATM based networks. In Proceedings SPIE’95, vol. 2501, 1995, pp. 1358–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    W.-M. Lam, A.R. Reibman, and B. Liu. Recovery of lost or erroneously received motion vectors. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing ICASSP’93, Minnesota, USA, vol. V, April 1993, pp. 417–420.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    X. Lee, Y.-Q. Zhang, and A. Leon-Garcia. Information loss recovery for block-based image coding techniques–a fuzzy logic approach. In Proceedings SPIE’93, vol. 2094, 1993, pp. 529–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24] Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information - Systems,MPEG-2 Standard ISO/IEC 13818–1, November 1994.Google Scholar
  25. [25] Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information - Video,MPEG-2 Standard ISO/IEC 13818–2, November 1994.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    A. Narula and J.S. Lim. Error concealment for an all-digital high-definition television system. In Proceedings SPIE’93, vol. 2094, 1993, pp. 304–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    B. Ramamurthi and A. Gersho. Nonlinear space-variant postprocessing of block coded images. In IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol. ASSP-34, no. 5, October 1986, pp. 1258–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    H.R. Rabiee, H. Radha, and R.L. Kashyap. Error concealment of still image and video streams with multi-directional recursive nonlinear filters. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP’96, Lausanne, Switzerland, vol. 2, September 1996, pp. 37–40.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    H. Sun, K. Challapali, and J. Zdepski. Error concealment in digital simulcast AD-HDTV decoder. In IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 38, no. 3, August 1992, pp. 108–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    P. Salama, N.B. Shroff, E.J. Coyle, and E.J. Delp. Error concealment techniques for encoded video streams. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP ‘85, Washington DC, October 1995, pp. 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    P. Salama, N.B. Shroff, and E.J. Delp. A Bayesian approach to error concealment in encoded video streams. In Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP’96, Lausanne, Switzerland, vol. 2, September 1996, pp. 49–52.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    H. Sun and W. Kwok. Error concealment with directional filtering for block transform coding. In Proceedings IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference GLOBECOM’93, Houston, Texas, December 1993, pp. 1304–1308.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    H. Sun and W. Kwok. Concealment of damaged block transform coded images using projections onto convex sets. In IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 4, no. 4, April 1995, pp. 470–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    H. Sun and J. Zdepski. Adaptive error concealment algorithm for MPEG compressed video. In Proceedings Visual Communications and Image Processing SPIE’92, vol. 1818, 1992, pp. 814–814.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    H. Sun, M. Uz, J. Zdepski, and R. Saint Girons. A proposal for increased error resilience. ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC29/WG11, MPEG 92 /532, Sept. 1992.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    M. Wada. Selective recovery of video packet loss using error concealment. In IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 7, June 1989, pp. 807–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Y. Wang and Q.-F. Zhu. Signal loss recovery in DCT-based image and video codecs. In Proceedings SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing SPIE’91, Boston, USA, vol. 1605, Nov. 1991, pp. 667–678.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Y. Wang, Q.-F. Zhu, and L. Shaw. Maximally smooth image recovery in transform coding. In Transactions on Communications, vol. 41, no. 10, October 1993, pp. 1544–1551.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    W. Zeng and B. Liu. Geometric-structure-based directional filtering for error concealment in image/video transmission. In Proceedings SPIE Wireless Data Transmission, Photonics East’95,vol. 2601, October 1995, pp. 145156.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    W. Zhu and Y. Wang. The use of second order derivative based smoothness measure for error concealment in transform based codecs. In Proceedings SPIE’95, vol. 2501, 1992, pp. 1205–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Q.-F. Zhu, Y. Wang, and L. Shaw. Image reconstruction for hybrid video coding systems. In Proceedings IEEE Data Compression Conference, March 1992, pp. 229–238.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Q.-F. Zhu, Y. Wang, and L. Shaw. Coding and cell-loss recovery in DCTbased packet video. In IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, June 1993, pp. 248–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna Aign
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Communications TechnologyGerman Aerospace Center (DLR)WesslingGermany

Personalised recommendations