Advertisement

Video Coding Standards: Error Resilience and Concealment

  • Mark R. Banham
  • James C. Brailean
Chapter

Abstract

The emergence of digital video compression as a means to enable visual communications has been driven largely by the efforts of voluntary international standards organizations. The standards developed by these organizations have substantially increased the use of video in many different applications. However, transmitting standardized video bitstreams in error prone environments still presents a particular challenge for multimedia system designers. This is mainly due to the high sensitivity of these bitstreams to channel errors. This chapter examines the existing standards for video compression and communication, and details the tools for providing error resilience and concealment within the scope and syntax of these standards.

Keywords

Discrete Cosine Transform Motion Vector Discrete Cosine Transform Coefficient Enhancement Layer Error Concealment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    B. Sklar, “Rayleigh fading channels in mobile digital communications systems part I: characterization,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 35, pp. 90–100, July, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.320, “Narrow-band visual telephone systems and terminal equipment,” March 1996.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.221, “Frame structure for a 64 to 1920 kbit/s channel in audiovisual teleservices,” July, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.261,“ Video codec for audiovisual services at p x 64 kbit/s,” March 1993.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    ITU-T Recommendation 1.324, “Terminal for low bit rate Multimedia Communication,” March 1996.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    ITU-T Recommendation 11.324/Annex C, “Multimedia telephone terminals over error prone channels,” Jan. 1998.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.223, “Multiplexing protocol for low bitrate multimedia communication,” March 1996.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    ITU-T Recommendation 11.223/Annex A, “Multiplexing protocol for low bitrate mobile multimedia communication over low error-prone channels,” Jan. 1998.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. R. Banham and T. Kadir, “Verification Tests for Synchronization Flag in 11.223 Annexes A and B”, ITU-T SG16/Q11, Doc. Q11-C-20, Eibsee, Germany, Dec. 2–5, 1997.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    T. Kadir, M. R. Banham, and J. C. Brailean, “Core Experiment Results for Multi-Level Error Resilient Extensions for H.223”, ITU-T SG16/Q11, Doc. Q11-B-24, Sunriver, OR, Sept. 8–12, 1997.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    ITU-T Recommendation 11.223/Annex B, “Multiplexing protocol for low bitrate multimedia communication over moderate error-prone channels,” Jan. 1998.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.223/Annex C, “Multiplexing protocol for low bitrate multimedia communication over highly error-prone channels,” Jan. 1998.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. Hagenauer, “Rate-Compatible Punctured Convolutional Codes (RCPC Codes) and their Applications,” IEEE Trans. Communications, vol. 36, pp. 389–400, April 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.263, Version 2, “Video coding for low bitrate communication,” Jan. 1998.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    ISO/IEC 11172–2, “Information technology-coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbits/s: Part 2 Video,” Aug. 1993.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.262 I ISO/IEC 13818–2, “Information technology - generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: video,” 1995.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    ISO/IEC 14496–2, “Information technology-coding of audio-visual objects: Visual,” Committee Draft, Oct. 1997.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.MATHGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    ITU-T Recommendation H.262 I ISO/IEC 13818–2, “Information technology - generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: video,” 1995.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    T. Miki, T. Kawahara, and T. Ohya, “Revised Error Pattern Generation Programs for Core Experiments on Error Resilience,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG96/1492, Maceio, Brazil, Nov. 1996.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    M. R. Banham and R. Dean, “Results for Core Experiment E5: Error Concealment and Resynchronization Syntax for Separate Motion Texture Mode,” ISO/IEC JTCI/SC29/WGI 1 MPEG96/1476, Maceio, Brazil, Nov. 1996.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    R. Aravind, R. Civanlar, and A. R. Reibman, “Packet loss resilience of MPEG-2 scalable video coding algorithms, ” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 6, pp. 426–435, Oct. 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    J. W. Park, J. W. Kim, S. U. Lee, “DCT coefficient recovery-based error concealment technique and its application to the MPEG-2 bit stream error,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 7, pp. 845–854, Dec. 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark R. Banham
    • 1
  • James C. Brailean
    • 1
  1. 1.Chicago Corporate Research LaboratoriesMotorolaSchaumburgUSA

Personalised recommendations