Length-Scale in Solidification Analysis
Cast copper is about 7000 years old. Cast iron, the first man-made composite, is at least 2500 years old. However, as the human species gradually moves from the “iron age” to the age of “engineered materials,” of all metal forming processes, the casting process remains the most direct and shortest route from component design to finished product. This makes casting one of the major manufacturing processes, while casting alloys are some of the most widely used materials. The main reasons for the longevity of the casting process are the wide range of mechanical and physical properties covered by casting alloys, the near-net shape capability of the casting process, the versatility of the process (weight from grams to hundred of tons, casting of any metal that can be melted, intricate shapes that cannot be produced by other manufacturing methods), and the competitive delivery price of the manufactured goods. While castings are “invisible” in many of their applications, since they may be part of complex equipment, they are used in 90% of all manufactured goods.
KeywordsCast Iron Casting Process Defect Prediction Intricate Shape Solidification Science
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- Cross M., C. Bailey, K. A. Pericleous, S. M. Bounds, G. J. Moran, G. A. Taylor and K. McManus, 1998, in: Modeling of Casting Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes VIII, B. G. Thomas and C. Beckermann, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Soc., Warrendale, Pennsylvania p. 787Google Scholar