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The Role of RNA-Binding Proteins in IRES-Dependent Translation

  • Sung Key Jang
  • Eckard Wimmer
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 16)

Abstract

Picornaviridae are a large family of human and animal RNA viruses whose best known members are poliovirus (PV) belonging to genus Enterovirus, human rhinovirus (HRV) of Rhinovirus, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) of Cardiovirus, hepatitis A virus (HA V) of Hepatovirus, and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of Aphthovirus. It has been estimated that the incidence of human infections by picornaviruses exceeds 6 billion per year. Fortunately, the vast majority of these infections are self limiting, with no serious sequelae. However, the diseases range from the very serious (poliomyelitis, meningitis, heart disease, hepatitis) to the benign (common cold) and together, they cause enormous hardship in the human population. The genome of picornaviruses is single stranded and of plus strand polarity. That is, it functions as mRNA after the virus has entered the host cell. Molecular biologic studies of these viruses have revealed numerous important mechanisms, including the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) (1,2). The description of picornaviral IRES elements broke the dogma that all eukaryotic translation begins with a mechanism of cap-dependent ribosome “scanning” from the 5’ end of mRNA. This chapter will discuss the role of RNA binding proteins in IRES-dependent translation of picornaviruses. The existence of viral IRESs has led to the discovery of IRES elements in numerous cellular mRNAs. These concepts regarding IRESs have revolutionized the general perception of the control of gene expression by translation in eukaryotic cells.

Keywords

Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Classical Swine Fever Virus Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Element Internal Initiation Internal Ribosomal Entry Site Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sung Key Jang
    • 1
  • Eckard Wimmer
    • 2
  1. 1.Pohang University of Science and TechnologyPohangKorea
  2. 2.Stony Brook School of Medicine Stony BrookSUNYUSA

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