Syndromes of Extreme Insulin Resistance

  • George Grunberger
  • Hisham Alrefai


This group of syndromes shares severe insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia with variable clinical manifestations.1,2 Attention has been paid to these rare disorders because they provide insight into several aspects of insulin action at the molecular level and advance our understanding of the more common insulin resistant disorders, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome3 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.4


Insulin Resistance Insulin Receptor Insulin Binding Acanthosis Nigricans Severe Insulin Resistance 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Grunberger
  • Hisham Alrefai

There are no affiliations available

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