Advertisement

Secondary Causes of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Tamer N. Sargios
  • Adrienne M. Fleckman

Abstract

The diabetic syndromes include type 1 diabetes with immune destruction of the pancreatic islets, type 2 diabetes with a complex pathophysiology of insulin resistance combined with insulin secretory failure, distinct monogenetic abnormalities (maturity onset diabetes of the young — MODY), and extreme insulin resistance of several different etiologies. In addition, secondary causes of diabetes mellitus refer to a category in which diabetes is associated with other diseases or conditions. Presumably, the diabetes is caused by those conditions, and could be reversed if those conditions were cured.

Keywords

Insulin Resistance Growth Hormone Acute Pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Glucose Intolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 24, Suppl 1: 1–32, 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thow J, Semad A, Alberti KGMM. Epidemiology and general aspects of diabetes secondary to pancreatopathy. In: Diabetes secondary to pancreatopathy. Tiengo A, Alberti KGMM, Del Prato S, Vranic M Eds; Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 7–20, 1988.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Del Prato S, Tiengo A. Diabetes secondary to acquired disease of the pancreas. In: International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus. Alberti KGMM, DeFronzo RA, Keen H, Zimmet P, Eds; John Wiley Sons, Inc., New York, 199, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scuro LA, Angelini G, Cavallini G, Vantini I. The late outcome of acute pancreatitis. In: Pancreatitis: concepts and classification.Gyr KL, Singer MV, Sarles H, Eds; Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 403–408, 1984.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drew SI, Joffe B, Vinik AI, Seften H, Singer F. The first 24 hours of acute pancreatitis. Changes in biochemical and endocrine homeostasis inpatients with pancreatitis compared to those in control subjects undergoing stress for reasons other than pancreatitis. Amer J Med 64: 795–803, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Donowitz M, Hendeler R, Spiro HM, Binder H, Felig P. Glucagon secretion in acute and chronic pancreatitis. J Intern Med 83: 778–781, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mlka D, Hammel P, Sauvanet A, Rufat P, O’toole D, Bardet P, Belghiti J, Pierre Bernades, Ruszniewski P, Lévy P. Risk factors for Diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 119: 1324–1322, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mergener, K, Baillie, J. Chronic pancreatitis. Lancet 350: 1379–1385, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Permert J, Larsson J, Fruin AB, Tatemoto K, Herrington MK, von Schenck H, Adrian TE. Islet hormone secretion in pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes. Pancreas 15: 60–68, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Slezak LA, Andersen DK. Pancreatic resection: effects on glucose metabolism. World journal of Surgery 25: 452–460, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shwachman H, Kowalski M, Khaw KT. Cystic fibrosis: a new outlook, 70 patients above 25 years of age. Medicine 56: 24–49, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Williams R., Williams HS, Scheuer PJ, Pitcher CS, Loiseau E, Sherlock S. Iron absorption and siderosis in chronic liver disease. Quart J Med 35: 151–166, 1967.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Powell LW, Yapp TR. Hemochromatosis. Clinics in Liver Disease 4: 211–228, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norton JA. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and duodenum. Curr Probi Surg 31: 77–156, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holst JJ. Glucagon-producing tumors. In: Hormone-producing tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Cohen S, Soloway RD, Ed; Churchill Livingstone, New York, 57, 1985.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guillausseau PJ, Guillausseau-Scholer C. Glucagonomas: Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and advances in management. In: Endocrine Tumors of the Pancreas: Recent Advances in Research and Management. Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research, Vol. 23. Mignon M, Jensen RT, Eds; S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland, 183, 1995.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holst JJ, Orskov C. Glucagon and other proglucagon-derived peptides. In: Gut Peptides. Walsh JH, Dockray GJ, Eds; Raven Press, New York, 305, 1994.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Delcore R, Friesen SR. Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. J Amer Coll Surg 178: 187–211, 1994.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vinik AI, Strodel WE, Eckhauser FE, Moattari AR, Lloyd R. Somatostatinomas, PPomas, neurotensinomas. Semin Oncol 14: 263–281, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sassolas G, Chayvialle JA. GRFomas, somatostatinomas: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and advances in management. In: Endocrine Tumors of the Pancreas: Recent Advances in Research and Management. Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research, Vol. 23. Mignon M, Jensen RT, Eds; S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland, 194, 1995.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matuchansky C, Rambuaud JC. VlPomas and endocrine cholera: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and advances in management. In: Endocrine Tumors of the Pancreas: Recent Advances in Research and Management. Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research, Vol. 23. Mignon M, Jensen RT, Eds; S. Karger, Basel, Switzerland, 166, 1995.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Feldman JM, Plonk JW, Bivens CH, Levobitz HE. Glucose intolerance in the carcinoid syndrome. Diabetes 24: 664–671, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E. Regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in humans. Diabetes Metab Rev 3: 415–459, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zein NN. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C, alcohol, or cholestatic disease. J Hepatol 32: 209–217, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Petrides AS. Liver disease and diabetes mellitus. Diab Rev 2: 2–18, 1994.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cavallo-Perin P, Cassader M, Bozzo C Bruno A, Nuccio P, Dall’Orno AM, Marucci M, Pagano G. Mechanism of insulin resistance in human liver cirrhosis: evidence of combined receptor and postreceptor defect. J Clin Invest 75: 1659–1665, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kingston ME, Ali MA, Atiyeh M, Donnelly RJ. Diabetes mellitus in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 87: 688–694, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Del Vecchio Blanco C, Gentile S, Marmo R, Carbone L, Coltorti M. Alterations of glucose metabolism in chronic liver disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 8: 29–36, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gentile S, Loguerico C, Gentile S, Marmo R, Carbone L, Del Vecchio Blanco C. Incidence of altered glucose tolerance in liver cirrhosis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 22: 37–44, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marks JB, Skyler JS. The liver and the endocrine system. In: Schiff s Diseases of the Liver. Eighth Edition. Schiff ER, Sorrell MF, Maddrey WC, Eds; Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, 477–488, 1999.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Petrides AS, Groop LC, Riely CA, DeFronzo RA. Effect of physiologic hyperinsulinemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in cirrhosis. J Clin Invest 88: 561–570, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Petrides AS, DeFronzo RA. Glucose and insulin metabolism in cirrhosis. J Hepatol 8: 107–114, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fraser GM, Harman I, Meller N, Niv Y, Porath A. Diabetes mellitus is associated with chronic hepatitis C but not chronic hepatitis B infection. Isr J Med Sci 32: 526–530, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marchesini G, Melli A, Checchia GA, Capelli M, Cassarani S, Zoli M, Pisi E. Pancreatic beta-cell function in cirrhotic patients with and without overt diabetes: c-peptide response to glucagons and to meal. Metabolism: Clinical Experimental 34: 695–701, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Allison ME, Wreghitt T, Palmer CR, Lexander GJ. Evidence for a link between hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes mellitus in cirrhotic population. J Hepatol 21: 1135–1139, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grimbert S, Valensi P, Lévy- Marchal C, Perret G, Richardet JP, Raffoux C, Trinchet JC, Beaugrand M. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a case-control study. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 20: 544–548, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Knobler H. Schihmanter R. Zifroni A. Fenakel G. Schattner A. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 75: 355–359, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hadziyannis SJ. The spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations in hepatitis C virus infection. J Vir Hepat 4: 9–28, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hadziyannis S, Karamanos B. Diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis C virus infection [editorial]. Hepatology 29: 604–605, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Strassburg CP, Obermayer-Straub P, Manns MP. Autoimmunity in hepatitis C and D virus infection. J Viral Hepatitis 3: 49–59, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Farbis P, Betterle C, Floreani A, Greggio NA, De Lazzari F, Naccarato R, Chiaramonte M. Development of type 1 diabetes mellitus during interferon alfa therapy for chronic HCV hepatitis. Lancet 340: 548, 1992.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bianchi G, Marchesini G, Zoli M, Bugianesi E, Fabbri A, Pisi E. Prognostic significance of diabetes in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 20: 119–125, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Record CO, Alberti KG, Williamson DH, Wright R. Glucose tolerance and metabolic changes in human viral hepatitis. Clin Sci Mol Med 45: 677–690, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bressler P, DeFronzo RA. Drugs and diabetes. Diabetes Reviews 2: 5383, 1994.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lambertus MW, Murthy AR, Nagami P, Bidwell Goetz M. Diabetic ketoacidosis following pentamidine therapy in a patient with the acquired immunodefiency syndrome. West J Med 149: 602–604, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bouchard P, Sai P, Reach G, Caubarrere I, Ganeval D, Assan R. Diabetes mellitus following pentamidine-induced hypoglycemia in humans. Diabetes 31: 40–45, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Assan R, Perronne C, Assan D, Chotard L, Mayaud C, Matheron S, Zucman D. Pentamidine-induced derangements of glucose homeostasis. Diabetes Care 18: 47–55, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pandit MK, Burke J, Gustafson AB, Minocha A, Peiris AN. Drug-induced disorders of glucose tolerance. Ann Intern Med 118: 529–540, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    O’Byrne S, Feely J. Effects of drugs on glucose tolerance in non-insulindependent diabetes (parts I and II). Drugs 40: 203–219, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shiba T, Morino Y, Tagawa K, Fujino H, Unuma T. Onset of diabetes with high titer anti-GAD antibody after IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 30: 237–241, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Trujillo MH. Pharmacologic antidotes in critical care medicine: a practical guide for drug administration. Crit Care Med 26: 377–391, 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gallanosa AG, Spyker DA, Curnow RT. Diabetes mellitus associated with autonomic and peripheral neuropathy after Vacor poisoning: a review. Clin Toxicol 18: 441–449, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tsiodras S, Mantzoros C, Hammer S, Samore M. Effects of protease inhibitors on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and lipodystrophy: a 5-year cohort study. Arch Intern Med 160: 2050–2056, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Martinez E, Mocroft A, Garcia-Viejo MA, Perez-Cuevas JB, Blanco JL, Mallolas J, Bianchi L, Conget I, Blanch J, Phillips A, Gatell JM. Risk of lipodystrophy in HIV-1-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 357: 592–598, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Liang J, Distler O, Cooper DA, Jamil H, Deckelbaum RJ, Ginsberg HN, Sturley SL. HIV protease inhibitors protect apolipoprotein B from degradation by the proteasome: a potential mechanism for protease inhibitor-induced hyperlipidemia. Nature Med 7: 1327–1331, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Riddle TM, Kuhel DG, Woollett LA, Fichtenbaum CJ, Hui DY. HIV protease inhibitor induces fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis in liver and adipose tissues due to the accumulation of activated sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in the nucleus. J Biol Chem 276: 37514–37519, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Martine C, Auclair M, Vigouroux C, Glorian M, Forest C, Capeau J. The HIV protease inhibitor indinavir impairs sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 intranuclear localization, inhibits preadipocyte differentiation, and induces insulin resistance. Diabetes 50: 1378–1388, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Murata H, Hruz PW, Mueckler M. The mechanism of insulin resistance caused by HIV protease inhibitor therapy. J Biol Chem 275: 2025120254, 2000.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Arioglu E, Duncan-Morin J, Segring N, Rother KI, Gottlieb N, Lieberman J, Herion D, Kleiner DE, Reynolds J, Premkumar A, Sumner AE, Hoofnagle J, Reitman ML, Taylor SI. Efficacy and safety of troglitazone in the treatment of lipodystrophy syndromes. [see comments]. Ann Intern Med 133: 263–274, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hadigan C, Corcoran C, Basgoz N, Davis B, Sax P, Grinspoon S. Metformin in the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 284: 472–477, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Usala AL, Madigan T, Burguera B, Sinha MK, Caro JF, Cunningham P, Powell JG, Butler PC. Treatment of insulin-resistant diabetic ketoacidosis with insulin-like growth factor I in an adolescent with insulin-dependent diabetes [Brief report]. N Engl J Med 327: 853–857, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Boden G. Role of fatty acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and NIDDM. Diabetes 46: 3–10, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Leung KC, Ho KKY. Stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation by growth hormone in human fibroblasts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 4208–4213, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Goodman HN. The metabolic actions of growth hormone. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section, 7; The Endocrine System, Vol. 2. The endocrine pancreas and regulation of metabolism. Jefferson LS, Cherrington AD, Goodman HM, Eds; Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, 849–906, 2001.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kopchick JJ. Growth hormone. In: Endocrinology. Fourth Edition. DeGroot LJ, Jameson LJ, Burger HG, Loriaux DL, Marschall JC, Melmed Shlomo, Odell WD, Potts JT Jr., Rubenstein AH, Eds; W.B. Saunders, New York, 389–404, 2001.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Butler AA, LeRoith D. Minireview: tissue-specific versus generalized gene targeting of the igfl and igflr genes and their roles in insulin-like growth factor physiology. Endocrinol 142: 1685–1688, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Munck A, Naray-Fejes-Toth A. Glucocorticoid action: physiology. In: Endocrinology. Fourth Edition. DeGroot LJ, Jameson LJ, Burger HG, Loriaux DL, Marschall JC, Melmed Shlomo, Odell WD, Potts JT Jr., Rubenstein AH, Eds; W.B. Saunders, New York, 1632–1646, 2001.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Salati LM. Regulation of fatty acid biosynsthesis and lipolysis. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section, 7; The Endocrine System, Vol. 2. The endocrine pancreas and regulation of metabolism. Jefferson LS, Cherrington AD, Goodman HM, Eds; Oxford University Press, Inc. New York,, 495–527, 2001.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jefferson LS, Vary TC, Kimball SR. Regulation of protein metabolism in muscle. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section, 7; The Endocrine System, Vol. 2. The endocrine pancreas and regulation of metabolism. Jefferson LS, Cherrington AD, Goodman HM, Eds; Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, 536, 2001.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Masuzaki H, Paterson J, Shinyama H, Morton NM, Mullins JJ, Seckl JR, Flier JS. A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Science 294: 2166–2170, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gura T. Pot-bellied mice point to obesity enzyme [News of the Week]. Science 294: 2071–2072, 2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Manger WM, Gifford RW. Clinical and Experimental Pheochromocytoma. Second Edition. Blackwell Science Inc., Cambridge, 209, 1996.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cryer PE: The prevention and correction of hypoglycemia. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section, 7; The Endocrine System, Vol. 2. The endocrine pancreas and regulation of metabolism. Jefferson LS, Cherrington AD, Goodman HM, Eds; Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, 1057–1092, 2001.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cryer PE. Catecholamines, pheochromocytoma and diabetes. Diabetes Reviews 1: 309–317, 1993.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Romero R, Casanova B, Pulido N, Suarez AI, Rodriguez E, Rovira A. Stimulation of glucose transport by thyroid hormone in 3T3–L1 adipocytes: increased abundance of GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporter proteins. J Endocrinol 164: 187–195, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tosi F, Moghetti P, Castello R, Negri C, Bonora E, Muggeo M. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 45: 1029–1033, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mokuno T, Uchimura K, Hayashi R, Hayakawa, Makino M, Nagata M, Kakizawa H, Sawai Y, Kotake M, Oda N, Nakai A, Nagasaka A, Itoh M. Glucose transporter 2 concentrations in hyper-and hypothyroid rat livers. J Endocrinol 160: 285–289, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kreze A Sr., Kreze-Spirova E, Mikulecky M. Diabetes mellitus in primary aldosteronism. Bratislayske Lekarske Listy 101: 187–190, 2000.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ferrannini E, Galvan AQ, Santoro D, Natali A. Potassium as a link between insulin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. J Hypertension, Suppl 10: 55–10, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamer N. Sargios
  • Adrienne M. Fleckman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations