Microbiological Spoilage of Wine and its Control

  • Roger B. Boulton
  • Vernon L. Singleton
  • Linda F. Bisson
  • Ralph E. Kunkee


This chapter includes the descriptions and origins of various kinds of microbiological spoilage organisms—and the prevention of their presence and the control of their growth if present. It is important for the winemaker to know which spoilage has occurred in any given instance and to understand potential spoilage problems, but obviously it is better to forestall spoilage than to diagnose it. The taxonomic identifications of the yeasts are given in Chapter 4, and the lactic acid bacteria in Chapter 6. For the aerobic bacteria, the taxonomies are given at the end of this chapter.


Lactic Acid Bacterium Grape Juice Wine Yeast Sorbic Acid Acetic Acid Bacterium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alleva, J. J., P. F. Bonventre, and C. Lamanna. 1979. “Inhibition of ovulation in hamsters by the protein synthesis inhibitors diphtheria toxin and cycloheximide.” Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 162: 170–174.Google Scholar
  2. Amerine, M. A., Berg, H. W., Kunkee, R. E., Ough, C. S., Singleton, V. L. Singleton, and Webb, A.D. 1980. The Technology of Wine Making, 4th ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  3. Amon, J. F., R. F. Simpson, and J. M. Vandepeer. 1987. “A taint in wood-matured wine attributable to microbiological contamination of the oak barrel.” Austral. N. Z. Wine Ind. J. 2: 35–37.Google Scholar
  4. Asai, T. 1968. Acetic Acid Bacteria; Classification and Biochemical Activities. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bartholomew, J. E., and T. Mittwer. 1950. “A simplified bacterial spore stain.” Stain Technol. 25: 153–156.Google Scholar
  6. Beech, F. W. 1993. Yeasts in cider-making. In, The Yeasts, 2nd ed., A. H. Rose and J. S. Harrison, Eds., Vol. 5, pp. 169–213, London: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beech, F. W., and J. G. Carr. 1977. “Cider and perry.” In Economic Microbiology, Vol. 1, Alcoholic Beverages, A. H. Rose, Ed., pp. 139–313. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Belin, J.-M. 1972. “Recherches sur la répartition des levures à surface de la grappe de raisin.” Vitis 11: 135–145.Google Scholar
  9. Belin, J.-M., and P. Henry. 1972. “Contribution a l’étude écologique des levures dans le vignoble. Répartition des levures à la surface du pédicelle et de la baie de raisin. ” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 274D: 2318–2320.Google Scholar
  10. Bisson, L. F., and R. E. Kunkee. 1991. “Microbial interactions during wine production.” In, Mixed Cultures in Biotechnology, G. Zeikus and E. A. Johnson, Eds., pp. 37–68. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Buchanan, R. E., and N. E. Gibbons. 1974. Bergey I Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed. Baltimore: Williams AND Watkins.Google Scholar
  12. Canal-Llaubéres, R.-M., D. Dubourdieu, B. Richard, and A. Lonvaud-Funel. 1989. “Structure moléculaire ß-D-glucane exocullulaire de Pediococcus sp.” Conn. Vigne Vin. 23: 49–52.Google Scholar
  13. Chatonnet, P., D. Dubourdieu, J.-N. Boidron, and M. Pons. 1992. “The origin of ethylphenols in wines.” J. Sci. Food Agric. 60: 165–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chatonnet, P., D. Dubourdieu, J.-N. Boidron, and V. Lavigne. 1993. “Synthesis of volatile phenols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wines.” J. Sci. Food Agric. 62: 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatonnet, P., D. Dubourdieu, and J.-N. Boidron. 1989. “Incidence de certains facteurs sur la décarboxylation des acides phénols par la levure.” Conn. Vigne Vin 23: 59–62.Google Scholar
  16. Coley-Smith, J. R., K. Verhoeff, and W. R. Jarvis. 1980. The Biology of Botrytis. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Craig, J. T., and T. Heresztyn. 1984. “2-Ethyl3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-An assessment of its possible contribution to the mousy off-flavor of wines.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 35: 46–48.Google Scholar
  18. Crowell, E. A., and J. F. Guymon. 1975. “Wine constituents arising from sorbic acid addition and identification of 2-ethoxyhexa-3,5-diene as source of geranium-like off-odor.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 26: 97–102.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, C. R., T. H. Lee, and G. H. Fleet. 1982. “Inactivation of wine cork microflora by a commercial sulfur dioxide treatment.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 33: 124–127.Google Scholar
  20. De Man, J. C., M. Rogosa, and M. E. Sharpe. 1960. “A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli.” J. Appi. Bacteriol. 23: 130–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dittrich, H. H. 1987. Mikrobiologie des Weines. 2nd ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Ulmer.Google Scholar
  22. Drysdale, G. S., and G.H. Fleet. 1988. “Acetic acid bacteria winemaking: A review.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 39: 143–154.Google Scholar
  23. Drysdale, G. S., and G. H. Fleet. 1989. “The effect of acetic acid bacteria upon the growth and metabolism of yeasts during the fermentation of grape juice.” J. Appi. Bacteriol. 67: 471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ebner, H. 1982. Vinegar. In, Prescott & Dunn ’s Industrial Microbiology, 4th ed., G. Reed, Ed. Westport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  25. Fleet, G.H., G. M. Heard, and C. Gao. 1988. “The effect of temperature on the growth and ethanol tolerance of yeast during fermentation.” Yeast 5: 543–546.Google Scholar
  26. Fornachon, J. C. M., H. C. Douglas, and R. H. Vaughn. 1949. “Lactobacillus trichodes nov. spec., a bacterium causing spoilage in appetizer and dessert wines.” Hilgardia 19: 129–132.Google Scholar
  27. Fugelsang, K. C., M. M. Osborn, and C. J. Muller. 1993. Brettanomyces and Dekkera: Implications in wine making. In Beer and Wine Production-Analysis, Characterization, and Technological Advances. ACS Symposium Series 536, B. H. Gump and D. J. Pruett, Eds., pp. 110–131. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaunt, D. M., H. Degn, and D. Lloyd. 1988. “The influence of oxygen and organic hydrogen acceptors on glycolytic carbon dioxide production in Brettanomyces anomalus.” Yeast 4: 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gini, B., and R. H. Vaughn. 1962. “Bacilli in wine.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 30: 24–27.Google Scholar
  30. Guinard, J.-X. 1990. Lambic. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Goswell, R. W., and R. E. Kunkee. 1977. “Fortified wines.” In Economic Microbiology, Vol. 1, Alcoholic Beverages, A. H. Rose, Ed., pp. 478–535. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hansen, E. C. 1896. Practical Studies in Fermentation, pp. 512. New York: Spon and Chamberlain.Google Scholar
  33. Heresztyn, T. 1986a. “Formation of substituted tetrahydropyridines by species of Brettanomyces and Lactobacillus isolated from mousy wines.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 37: 127–132.Google Scholar
  34. Heresztyn, T. 1986b. “Metabolism of volatile phenolic compounds from hydroxycinnamic acid by Brettanomyces yeast.” Arch. Microbiol. 146: 96–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hock, S. 1990. “Coping with Brettanomyces.” Pract. Wine Vine. January/February: 26–31.Google Scholar
  36. Holt, J. G. 1984. Bergey ’s Manual of Systematic Bacte-riology, Vol 1. Baltimore: Williams AND Wilkins.Google Scholar
  37. Holt, J. G. 1986. Bergey ’s Manual of Systematic Bacte-riology, vol 2. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  38. Holt, J. G., N. R. Krieg, P. H. A. Sneath, J. T. Staley, and S. T. Williams. 1993. Bergey ’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams AND Wilkins.Google Scholar
  39. Humphries, J. C., T. M. Jane, and M. A. Sefton. 1992. “The influence of yeast fermentation on volatile oak extractives.” Austral. Grapegrow. Winemak. No. 343 July:17–18.Google Scholar
  40. Ilagan, R. D. 1979. “Studies of the Sporulation of Dekkera.” M.S. thesis, Davis, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  41. Koch, R. 1881. “Zur Züchtung von pathogenen Mikro-organismen.” Kaiserl. Gesundheitsampte 1, 4–48.Google Scholar
  42. Kreger-Van Ril, N. J. W. 1984. The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Kunkee, R. E. 1967. “Malolactic fermentation.” Adv. Appi. Microbiol. 9: 235–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kunkee, R. E. 1974. “Malolactic fermentation and winemaking.” In The Chemistry of Winemaking, Adv. Chem. Ser. 137, A. D. Webb, Ed., pp. 151–170. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kunkee, R. E. 1984. “Selection and modification of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria for wine fermentation.” Food Microbiol. 1: 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kunkee, R. E., G. J. Pilone, and R. E. Comm. 1965. “The occurrence of malo-lactic fermentation in Southern California wines.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16: 219–223.Google Scholar
  47. Lafon-I.Afourcade, S. 1983. “Wine and brandy.” In Biotechnology, A Comprehensive Treatise in 8 Volumes, Eds. H.J. Rehm and G. Reed, Vol. 5, pp. 81–163. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie.Google Scholar
  48. Lacunas, R., C. Dominguez, A. Busturia, and M. J. Saez. 1982. Mechanisms of appearance of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inactivation of the sugar transport system. J. Bacteriol. 152: 19–25.Google Scholar
  49. Larue, F., N. Rozes, I. Froudiére, C. Cou rv, and G. P. Perreira. 1991. “Incidence du développement de Dekkera/Brettanomyces dans les moûts et les vins.” J. Int. Sci. Vign Vin 25: 149–165.Google Scholar
  50. Lefebvre, A., J.-M. Riboulet, J.-N. Boidron, and P. Ribéreau-Gayon. 1983. “Incidence des microorganismes du liège sur les altérations olfactives du vin.” Sci. Ali. 3: 265–278.Google Scholar
  51. Llaubères, R.-M. 1988. Les polysaccharides sécrétés dans les vins par Saccharomyces cerevisiae et Pediococcus sp. PhD thesis, Talence, France.: University of Bordeaux I I.Google Scholar
  52. Llaubères, R.-M., D. Dubourdieu, and J. C. Villettaz. 1987. “Exocellular poly-saccharides from Saccharomyces in wine.” J. Sci. Food. Agric. 41: 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lonvaud-Funel, A. 1986. Recherches sur les bactéries lactiques du vin. Fonctions métaboliques, croissance, génétique plasmidique. PhD thesis, Talence, France: University of Bordeaux I I.Google Scholar
  54. Lonvaud-Funel, A., A. Joyeux, and C. Roulland. 1990. “Etude d’altérations des vin par les bactéries lactiques.” In, Actualities OEnologiques 89, P. Ribéreau-Gayon and A. Lonvaud, Eds., pp. 378–382. Paris: Dunod.Google Scholar
  55. Luthi, H. R. 1957. “Symbiotic problems relating to bacterial deterioration of wines.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 8: 176–181.Google Scholar
  56. Malletroit, V., J.-X. Guinard, R. E. Kunkee, and M. J. Lewis. 1991. “Effect of pasteurization on microbiological and sensory quality of white grape juice and wine.” J. Food Process. Presero. 15: 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meynell, G. G., and E. Meynell. 1965. Theory and Practice in Experimental Bacteriology. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Ough, C. S., and M. A. Amerine. 1988. Methods for Analysis of Musts and Wines. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  59. Ouch, C. S., and J. L. Ingraham. 1960. “Use of sorbic acid and sulfur dioxide in sweet table wines.” Am J. Enol. Vitic. 11: 117–122.Google Scholar
  60. Ouch, C. S., R. E. Kunkee, M. R. Vu.As, E. Bordeu, and M.-C. Huang. 1988. “The interaction of sulfur dioxide, pH, and dimethyl decarbonate on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Montrachet and Leuconostoc oenos MCW.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 38: 279–282.Google Scholar
  61. Pasteur, L. 1866. Etudes sur le Vin. Paris: Victor Masson et Fils.Google Scholar
  62. Peynaud, E., and S. Domercq. 1955. “Sur les epèces de levures fermentant sélectivement le fructose.” Ann. Inst. Past. 89: 346–351.Google Scholar
  63. Radler, F., and S. Hartel. 1984. Lactobacillus trichodes, ein Alkoholabhändiges Milchsäurebakterium. Wein-Wissen. 39: 106–112.Google Scholar
  64. Rapp, A. 1988. “Wine aroma substances form gas chromatographic analyses.” In, Wine Analysis, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, H. F. Linskens and J. F. Jackson, Eds., New Series Vol. 6, pp. 29–66. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Romano, P., and G. Suzzi. 1993. “Potential use for Zygosaccharomyces species in Winemaking.” J. Wine Res. 4: 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rose, A. H. 1961. Industrial Microbiology. Washington, DC: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  67. Sponholz, W.-R. 1994. “Identification of wine aroma defects caused by yeast and bacteria.” Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual New York Wine Industry Workshop, pp. 78–95. Geneva, New York: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station.Google Scholar
  68. Swings, J., and J. Deley. 1977. “The biology of Zymomonas.” Bacteriol. Rev. 41: 1–46.Google Scholar
  69. Taylor, J. 1962. “The estimation of numbers of bacteria by tenfold dilution series.” J. Appi. Bacteriol. 25: 54–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thomas, D. S. 1993. “Yeasts as spoilage organisms in beverages.” In, The Yeasts, 2nd edition, A. H. Rose and J. S. Harrison, Eds., Vol 5, pp. 517–561. New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tucknott, O. G., and A. A. Williams. 1973. “Taints in fermented juice products.” Annual Report Long Ashton Research Station for 1972, p. 159. Dorchester, UK: H. Ling.Google Scholar
  72. Van Der Walt, J. P., and A. E. Van Kerken. 1958. “The wine yeasts of the Cape, Part II.” Ant. Leeuvwen. 25: 449–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Van Der Walt, J. P., and A. E. Van Kerken. 1961. “The wine yeasts of the Cape, Part V.” Ant. Leeuvwen. 27: 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Van Urk, H., W. S. L. Voll, W. A. Scheffers, and J. P. Van Dijken. 1990. “Transient-state analysis of metabolic fluxes in Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative yeasts.” Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 281–287.Google Scholar
  75. Van Zvi., J. A. 1962. “Turbidity in South African dry wines caused by the development of the Brettanomyces yeast.” Dept. Agric. Tech. Ser., Pretoria, Sci. Bull. No. 381.Google Scholar
  76. Vaughn, R. H. 1955. “Bacterial spoilage of wines with special reference to California conditions.” Adv. Food Res. 6: 67–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wijsman, M. R., J. P. Van Dijken, B. H. Van Kleeff, and W. A. Scheffers. 1984. “Inhibition of fermentation and growth in batch cultures of the yeast Brettanomyces intermedius upon a shift from aerobic to anaerobic conditions (Custers effect).” Ant. Leeuwen. 50: 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger B. Boulton
    • 1
  • Vernon L. Singleton
    • 1
  • Linda F. Bisson
    • 1
  • Ralph E. Kunkee
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations