Malolactic Fermentation

  • Roger B. Boulton
  • Vernon L. Singleton
  • Linda F. Bisson
  • Ralph E. Kunkee


This chapter defines the malolactic fermentation and covers the practical aspects of the fermentation under winemaking conditions, including its control. The chapter also describes fundamental aspects, that is, the intermediary metabolism of the malolactic bacteria with respect to malic acid. For convenience, the taxonomy of the wine-related lactic acid bacteria, which embrace the malolactic bacteria, is also included here.


Lactic Acid Lactic Acid Bacterium Malic Acid Pyruvic Acid Grape Juice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agree, T. E., J. Barnard, And D. G. Cunningham. 1984. “A procedure for the sensory analysis of gas chromatographic effluents.” Food. Chem. 14: 273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, S. H. G., And J. R. Patil. 1972. “Studies on the structure and mechanism of action of malate-lactate transhydrogenase.” J. Biol. Chem. 247: 909–916.Google Scholar
  3. Alizade, M. A., And H. Simon. 1973. “Zum Merchanismus und zur Kompartmentierung der L- und D-Lactatbildung aus L-Malat bzw. D-Glucose in Leuconstoc mesenteroides.” Z. Physiol. Chem. 354: 163–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amachi, T. 1975. “Chemical structure of a growth factor (TJF) and its physiological significance for malo-lactic bacteria.” In Lactic Acid Bacteria in Beverages and Food, J. G. Carr, C. V. Cutting, and G. C. Whiting, Eds., pp. 103–118. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Amachi, T., S. Imamoto, And H. Yoshizumi. 1971. “A growth factor for malo-lactic fermentation bacteria. Part II. Structure and synthesis of a novel pantothenic acid derivative isolated from tomato juice.” Agric. Biol. Chem. 35: 1222–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amati, A., G. Arfelli, E. Dell’acqua, And R. Zironi. 1993. “Lysozyme: A new product to control malolactic fermentation in enology. Its application and results.” Paper presented at 44th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Enology and Viticulture, June 22–25 1993, at Sacramento Convention Center, Sacramento, California. 1993 Technical Abstracts, p. 42.Google Scholar
  7. Amerine, M. A., H. W. Berg, R. E. Kunkee, C. S. Ough, V. L. Singleton, And A. D. Webb. 1980. The Technology of Wine Making, 4th ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  8. Amerine, M. A., And E. B. Roessler. 1983. Wines Their Sensory Evaluation, 2nd ed. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  9. Asmundson, R. V., And W. J. Kelly. 1990. “Temperature and ethanol effects on growth of Leuconostoc oenos.” In Fermentation Technologies: Industrial Applications, P.-K. Yu, Ed., pp. 128–131. International Biotechnology Conference, February 12–15 1990, Massey University, Palmerston North, New York: Elsevier Applied Science.Google Scholar
  10. Barre, P. 1978. “Identification of thermobacteria and homofermentative, thermophilic, pentose-utilizing lactobacilli from high temperature fermenting grape musts.” J. App. Bacteriol. 44: 125–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bassit, N., C.-Y. Boquien, D. Picque, And G. Corrieu. 1993. “Effect of initial oxygen concentration on diacetyl and acetoin production by Lactoccocus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis.” App. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 1893–1897.Google Scholar
  12. Beelman, R. B., And J. F. Gallander. 1979. “Wine deacidification.” Adv. Food. Res. 25: 1–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beelman, R. B., And R. E. Kunkee. 1987. “Inducing simultaneous malolactic/alcoholic fermentations.” Pract. Winery Vyd. July/Aug:44–56.Google Scholar
  14. Benda, I. 1982. “Wine and brandy.” In, Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology, G. Reed, Ed., pp. 293–402. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Buteau, C., C. L. Duitschaever, And G. C. Ashton1984. “A study of the biogenesis of amines in a Villard noir wine.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 35: 228–236.Google Scholar
  16. Caspritz, G., And F. Radler. 1983. “Malolactic enzyme of Lactobacillus plantarum. Purification, properties, and distribution among bacteria.” J. Biol. Chem. 258: 4907–4910.Google Scholar
  17. Gavin, J. F., F. Z. Drici, H. Priévost, And C. Diviès. 1991. “Prophage curing in Leuconostoc oenos by Mitomycin C induction.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 42: 163–166.Google Scholar
  18. Cofran, D. R., And J. Meyer. 1970. “The effect of fumaric acid on malo-lactic fermentation.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 21: 190–192.Google Scholar
  19. Collins, E. B. 1972. “Biosynthesis of flavor compounds by microorganisms.” J. Dairy Sci. 55: 1022–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cox, D. J., And T. Henick-Kling. 1989. “Chem-osmotic energy from malolactic fermentation.” J. Bacteriol. 170: 5750–5752.Google Scholar
  21. Daeschel, M. A., D.-S. Jung, And B. T. Watson. 1991. “Controlling wine malolactic fermentation with nisin and nisin-resistant strains of Leuconostoc oenos.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 601–603.Google Scholar
  22. Daniel, P., E. De Waele, And J.-N. Hallet. 1993. “Optimization of transverse alternating field electrophoresis for strain identification of Leuconostoc oenos.” Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38: 638–641.Google Scholar
  23. Davis, C., N. F. A. Silveira, And G. H. Fleet. 1985a. “Occurrence and properties of bacteriophages of Leuconostoc oenos in Australian wines.” Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 872–876.Google Scholar
  24. Davis, C. R., D. J. Wibowo, R. Eschenbruch, T. H. Lee, And G. H. Fleet. 1985b. “Practical implications of malolactic fermentation: A review.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 36: 290–301.Google Scholar
  25. Davis, C. R., D. Wibowo, G. H. Fleet, And T. H. Lee. 1988. “Properties of wine lactic acid bacteria: Their potential enological significance.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 39: 137–142.Google Scholar
  26. Davis, C. R., D. J. Wibowo, T. H. Lee, And G. H. Fleet. 1986. “Growth and metabolism of lactic acid bacteria during and after malolactic fermentation of wines at different pH.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 539–545.Google Scholar
  27. Delfini, C. 1989. “Ability of wine malolactic bacteria to produce histamine.” Sci. Aliments 9: 413–416.Google Scholar
  28. De Rosa, T. 1987. Tecnologia dei Vini Spumanti. Brescia, Italy: Edizioni AEB.Google Scholar
  29. Dick, K. J., P. C. Molan, And R. Eschenbruch. 1992. “The isolation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae of two antibacterial cationic proteins that inhibit malolactic bacteria.” Vitis 31: 105–116.Google Scholar
  30. Du Plessis, L. De W. 1963. “The microbiology of South African winemaking. Part V. Vitamin and amino acid requirements of the lactic acid bacteria from dry wines.” S. African J. Agric. Sci. 6: 485–494.Google Scholar
  31. Edwards, C. G., And R. B. Beelman. 1989. “Inducing malolactic fermentation in wines.” Biotech. Adv. 7: 333–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Edwards, C. G., And K. A. Jensen. 1992. “Occurrence and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from Washington State wines: Pediococcus spp.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 43: 233–238.Google Scholar
  33. Edwards, C. G., J. R. Powers, K. A. Jensen, K. M. Weller, And J. C. Peterson. 1993. “Lactobacillus spp. from Washington State wines: isolation and characterization.” J. Food Sci. 58: 453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flanzy, C. 1972. “La vinification par macération carbonique.” Rev. Franc. Oenol. 13 (45): 42–50.Google Scholar
  35. Flanzy, M., And P. André. 1973. La Vinification par Macération Carbonique. Versailles, France: Ministère de l’Agriculture, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.Google Scholar
  36. Flanzy, C., M. André, M. Flanzy, And Y. Chambroy. 1967. “Variations quantitives des acides organiques stables, non cetoniques, non volatils, dans les baies de raisin placées en anaérobiose carbonique. II. Influence de la durée d’anaérobiose.” Ann. Technol. Agric. 16: 89–107.Google Scholar
  37. Fornachon, J. C. M. 1957. “The occurrence of malo-lactic fermentation in Australian wines.” Austral. J. Appi. Sci. 8: 120–129.Google Scholar
  38. Fornachon, J. C. M. 1968. “Influence of different yeasts on the growth of lactic acid bacteria in wine.” J. Sci. Food Agric. 19: 374–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Frohlich, D., And R. Battaglia. 1980. “HPCLAnalyse von biogenen Aminien in Wein.” Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunters. Hyg. 71: 38–44.Google Scholar
  40. Fugelsang, K. C., And B. W. Zoecklein. 1993. “Exclusive PW MLF survey.” Pract. Winery Vyd. May/June 12–18.Google Scholar
  41. Garvie, E. I. 1967. Leuconostoc oenos sp. nov. J. Gen Microbiol. 48: 431–8.Google Scholar
  42. Garvie, E. I., And J. A. Farrow. 1980. “The differentiation of Leuconostoc oenos from nonacidophilic species of leuconostoc, and the identification of five strains from the American Type Culture Collection.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 31: 154–157.Google Scholar
  43. Guilloux-Benatier, M., H. S. Son, S. Bouhier, And M. Feuillat. 1993. “Activités enzymatiques: Glycosidases et peptidase chez Leuconostoc oenos au cours de la croissance bactérienne. Influence des macromolécules de levures.” Vitis 32: 52–57.Google Scholar
  44. Harvey, R. J., And E. B. Collins. 1963. “Roles of citrate and acetoin in the metabolism of Streptococcus diacetilactis.” J. Bacteriol. 86: 1301–1307.Google Scholar
  45. Henick-Kling, T. 1986. “Control of malolactic fermentation.” In Technical Review No. 41, pp. 3–6. Adelaide: The Australian Wine Research Institute.Google Scholar
  46. Henick-Kling, T. 1988. “Yeast and bacterial control in winemaking.” In Wine Analysis, H.F. Linskens, and J. F. Jackson, Eds., pp. 276–316. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Henick-Kling, T. 1993. “Modification of wine flavour by malolactic fermentation.” 10th International Oenological Symposium, May 3–5, 1993, pp. 290–306. Breisach, Germany: International Association for Winery Technology and Management.Google Scholar
  48. Henick-Kling, T., T. H. Lee, And D. J. D. Nicholas. 1986. “Inhibition of bacterial growth and malo-lactic fermentation in wine by bacteriophage.” J. Appi. Bacteriol. 61: 287–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hiaring, S. 1974. “Carbonic maceration as done in California.” Wines and Vines. 55 (4): 65–66.Google Scholar
  50. Holt, J. G., N. R. Krieg, P. H. A. Sneath, J. T. Staley, And S. T. Williams. 1993. Bergey ’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  51. Hugenholtz, J., L. Perdon, And T. Abee. 1993. “Growth and energy generation by Lactococcuslactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis during citrate metabolism.” Appt. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 4216–4222.Google Scholar
  52. Hugenholtz, J., And M. J. C. Starrenburg. 1992. “Diacetyl production by different strains of Lactococcus lactic subsp. lactis var. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc spp.” J. Dairy Res. 55: 17–22.Google Scholar
  53. Ingraham, J. L., And G. M. Cooke. 1960. “A survey of the incidence of malo-lactic fermentation in California table wines.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 11: 160–163.Google Scholar
  54. Kelly, W. J., R. V. Asmundson, And D. H. Hopcroft. 1989. “Growth of Leuconostoc oenos under anaerobic conditions.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 40: 277–282.Google Scholar
  55. Kelly, W. J., C. M. Huang, And R. V. Asmundson. 1993. “Comparison of Leuconostoc oenos strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.” Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 3969–3971.Google Scholar
  56. King, S. W., And R. B. Beelman. 1986. “Metabolic interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Leuconostoc oenos in a model grape juice/wine system.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 37: 53–60.Google Scholar
  57. Klaenhammer, T. R. 1987. “Plasmid-directed mechanisms for bacteriophage defense in lactic streptococci.” FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 46: 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krieger, S. A., B. Pfitzer, And W. P. Hammes. 1993. “Evaluation of lactic acid bacterial strains for diacetyl production.” Poster presented at 44th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Enology and Viticulture, June 22–25 1993, at Sacramento Convention Center, Sacramento, California. 1993 Technical Abstracts, p. 64.Google Scholar
  59. Kuensch, W., A. Temperli, And K. Meyer. 1974. “Conversion of arginine to ornithine during malolactic fermentation in red Swiss wine.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 25: 191–193.Google Scholar
  60. Kümmel, A., G. Behrens, And G. Gottschalk. 1975. “Citrate lyase from Streptococcus diacetilactis. Association with its acetylating enzyme.” Arch. Microbiol. 102: 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kunkee, R. E. 1967a. “Malo-lactic fermentation.” Adv. Appi. Microbiol. 9: 235–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kunkee, R. E. 1967b. “Theoretical changes in pH accompanying malolactic fermentation.” Paper presented at 18th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Enology and Viticulture, June 22–24 1967, at Santa Barbara, California. 1967 Technical Abstracts, p. 10.Google Scholar
  63. Kunkee, R. E. 1968. “Simplified chromatographic procedure for detection of malo-lactic fermentation.” Wines and Vines 49 (3): 23–24.Google Scholar
  64. Kunkee, R. E. 1974. “Malo-lactic fermentation and winemaking.” In, The Chemistry of Winemaking, Adv. Chem. Ser. 137, A. D. Webb, Ed., pp. 151–170. Washington DC: American Chemical Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kunkee, R. E. 1975. “A second enzymatic activity for decomposition of malic acid by malo-lactic bacteria.” In Lactic Acid Bacteria in Beverages and Food, J. G. Carr, C. V. Cutting, and G. C. Whiting, Eds., pp. 29–42. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kunkee, R. E. 1984. “Selection and modification of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria for wine fermentation.” Food. Microbiol. 1: 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kunkee, R. E. 1991. “Some roles of malic acid in the malolactic fermentation in wine making.” FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 88: 55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kunkee, R. E., G. J. Pilone, And R. E. Combs. 1965. “The occurrence of malo-lactic fermentation in southern California wines.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16: 219–223.Google Scholar
  69. Lafollette, G. T. 1991. Chemical and Sensory Influences of Sur Lies on Chardonnay Wines. MS thesis, Davis, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  70. Lebougeois, P., M. Mata, And P. Ritzenthaler. 1989. “Genome comparison of Lactococcus strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 59: 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lee, S. O., And M. Y. Pack. 1980. “Malate stimulation on growth rate of Leuconostoc oenos.” Korean J. Appi. Microbiol. Bioeng. 8: 221–227.Google Scholar
  72. London, J. 1968. “Regulation and function of lactate oxidation in Streptococcus faecium.” J. Bacteriol. 95: 1380–1387.Google Scholar
  73. Lonvaud, M., A. Lonvaud-Funel, And P. Ribéreau-Gayon. 1977. “Le mecanisme de la fermentation malolactiques des vins.” Connais. Vigne Vin 11: 73–91.Google Scholar
  74. Lonvaud-Funel, A., C. Fremaux, N. Biteau, And A. Joyeux. 1991. “Speciation of lactic acid bacteria from wines by hybridization with DNA probes.” Food Microbiol. 8: 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Luthi, H., And U. Vetsch. 1960. “Contributions to knowledge of the malolactic fermentation in wines and ciders. II. The growth promoting effect of yeast extract on lactic acid bacteria causing malolactic fermentation in wines.” J. Appi. Bacteriol. 22: 384–391.Google Scholar
  76. Malletroit, V., J.-X. Guinard, R. E. Kunkee, And M. J. Lewis. 1991. “Effect of pasteurization on microbiological and sensory quality of white grape juice and wine.” J. Food Process. Presero. 15: 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mccloskey, L. P. 1980. “Enzymatic assay for malic acid and malo-lactic fermentation.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 31: 212–215.Google Scholar
  78. Mccorkle, K. 1974. “Carbonic maceration…a beaujolais system for producing early-maturing red wine.” Wines and Vines. 55 (4): 62–65.Google Scholar
  79. Melamed, N. 1962. “Détermination des sucres résiduels des vins, leur relation avec la fermentation malolactique.” Ann. Techn, Agric. 11: 5–11, 107–119.Google Scholar
  80. Michels, P. A. M., J. P. J. Michels, J. Boonstra, And W. N. Konings. 1979. “Generation of an electrochemical proton gradient in bacteria by the excretion of metabolic end products.” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 5: 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Morenzoni, R. A. 1973. A Second Enzymatic Malic Acid Decomposing Activity in Leuconostoc oenos. PhD thesis, Davis, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  82. Nathan, H. A. 1961. “Induction of malic enzyme and oxaloacetate decarboxylase in three lactic acid bacteria.” J. Gen. Microbiol. 25: 415–420.Google Scholar
  83. Otto, R., J. Hugenholtz, W. N. Konings, And H. Veldkamp. 1980. “Increase of molar growth yield of Streptococcus cremoris for lactose as a consequence of lactate consumption by Pseudomonas stutzeri in mixed culture.” FEMC Microbiol. Lett. 9: 85–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ough, C. S., E. A. Crowell, R. E. Kunkee, M. R. Vilas, And S. Lagier. 1987. “A study of histamine production by various wine bacteria in model solutions and in wine.” J. Food Proc. Pres. 12: 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ouch, C. S., R. E. Kunkee, M. R. Vilas, E. Bordeu, And M.-C. Huang. 1988. “The interaction of sulfur dioxide, pH, and dimethyl decarbonate on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Montrachet and Leuconostoc oenos MCW.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 38: 279–282.Google Scholar
  86. Peynaud, E., S. Lafon-Lafourcade, And S. Domercq. 1965. “Besoins nutritionnels de soixante-quarte souches de bactéries lactiques isolées de vins.” Bull. O.I.V. 38: 945–958.Google Scholar
  87. Pilone, G. J. 1975. “Control of malo-lactic fermentation in table wines by addition of fumaric acid.” In, Lactic Acid Bacteria in Beverages and Food, J. G. Carr, C. V. Cutting, and G. C. Whiting, Eds., pp. 121–138. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Pilone, G. J., And R. E. Kunkee. 1965. “Sensory characterization of wines fermented with several malo-lactic strains of bacteria.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16: 224–230.Google Scholar
  89. Pilone, G. J., And R. E. Kunkee. 1970. “Carbonic acid from decarboxylation by ”malic“ enzyme in lactic acid bacteria.” J. Bacteriol. 103: 404–409.Google Scholar
  90. Pilone, G. J., And R. E. Kunkee. 1976. “Stimulatory effect of malolactic fermentation on the growth rate of Leuconostoc oenos.” Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 32: 405–408.Google Scholar
  91. Pilone, G. J., And S.-Q. liu. 1992. “Arginine metabolism by malolactic bacteria and its oenological implications.” In, Proceedings of the New Zealand Grape and Wine Symposium-Profit: In the Market, in the Winery, in the Vineyard, D. J. Jordan, Ed., pp. 100–105. Auckland, New Zealand: New Zealand Society for Viticulture and Oenology.Google Scholar
  92. Pompilio, R. 1993. “Malolactic fermentation…Who’s doing what-and why?” Vyd. Winery Manag. 19 (6): 44–47.Google Scholar
  93. poux, C., And M. Caillet1969. “Dosage enzymatique de l’acide L(-)malique.” Ann. Technol.Agric. 18: 359–366.Google Scholar
  94. Prahl, C., A. Lonvaud-Funel, S. Korsgaard, E. Morrison, And A. Joyeux. 1988. “Etude d’un procédé de déclenchement de la fermentation malolactique.” Conn. Vigne Vin 22: 197–207.Google Scholar
  95. Pukrushpan, L. 1976. The role of L-Malic acid in the metabolism of malo-lactic bacteria. PhD thesis, Davis, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  96. Radler, F. 1966. “Die mikrobiologischen Grundlagen des Säureabbaus im Wein.” Zbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. II, 120: 237–287.Google Scholar
  97. Radler, F. 1975. “The metabolism of organic acids by lactic acid bacteria.” In Lactic Acid Bacteria in Beverages and Food, J. G. Carr, C. V. Cutting, and G. C. Whiting, Eds., pp. 17–27. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  98. Radler, F. 1990a. “Possible use of nisin in wine-making. I. Action of nisin against lactic acid bacteria and wine yeasts in solid and liquid media.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 41: 1–6.Google Scholar
  99. Radler, F. 1990b. “Possible use of nisin in wine-making. II. Experiments to control lactic acid bacteria in the production of wine.” Am.J. Enol. Vitic. 41: 7–11.Google Scholar
  100. Radler, F., And S. Hartel. 1984. Lactobacillus trichodes, ein Alkoholabhängiges Milchsäurebakterium. Wein-Wiss. 39: 106–112.Google Scholar
  101. Rankine, B. C. 1967. “Influence of yeast strain and pH on pyruvic acid content of wines.” J. Sci. Food Agric. 18: 41–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rankine, B. C., J. C. M. Fornachon, And D. A. Bridson. 1969. “Diacetyl in Australian dry red table wines and its significance in wine quality.” Vitis 8: 129–134.Google Scholar
  103. Renault, P. C. Gaillardin, And H. Heslot. 1988. “Role of malolactic fermentation in lactic acid bacteria.” Biochimie 70: 375–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rogosa, M., And M. E. Sharpe. 1959. “An approach to classification of the lactobacilli.” J. Appl. Bacteriol. 22: 329–340.Google Scholar
  105. Rynders, A. J. 1993. Effects of yeast strain, pH, and vitamin supplementation during vinification with simultaneous inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MS thesis, Davis, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  106. Schanderl, H. 1959. Die Mikrobiologie des Mostes und Weines, 2nd ed. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer.Google Scholar
  107. Schmitt, P., A. G. Mathot, And C. Diviès. 1989. “Fatty acid composition of the genus Leuconostoc.” Milchwiss. 44: 556–559.Google Scholar
  108. Schütz, M., And F. Radler. 1973. “Das `Malatenzym’ von Lactobacillus plantarum und Leuconostoc mesenteroides.” Arch. Mikrobiol. 91: 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sneath, P. H. A. 1986. Bergey ’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st ed., Vol. 2. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  110. Sozzi, T., R. Maret, And J. M. Poulin. 1976. “Mis en evidence de bacteriophages dans le vin.” Experientia 32: 568–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Spettoli, P., M. P. Nuti, And A. Zamorani. 1984. “Properties of malolactic activity purified from Leuconostoc oenos ML34 by affinity chromatography.” Appi. Environ. Microbiol. 48: 900–901.Google Scholar
  112. Tracey, R. P., And T. J. Britz. 1989a. “Cellular fatty acid composition of Leuconostoc oenos.” J. Appi. Bacteriol. 66: 445–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tracey, R. P., And T. J. Britz. 1989b. “The effect of amino acids on malolactic fermentation by Leuconostoc oenos.” J. Appl. Bacteriol. 67: 589–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Troost, G., And H. Haushofer. 1986. Perl-and Schaumwein. Stuttgart, Germany: Eugen Ulmer.Google Scholar
  115. Vetsch, U., And H. Lüthi. 1964. “Decolorisation of red wines during biological decomposition of acids.” Mitt. Geb. Lebensmittelunter. Hyg. 55: 93–98.Google Scholar
  116. Vidal-Carou, M. C., A. Ambatlle-Espunyes, M. C. Ulla-Ulla, And A. Mariné-Font. 1990. “Histamine and tyramine in Spanish wines: their formation during the winemaking process.” Am.J. Enol. Vitic. 41: 160–167.Google Scholar
  117. Vidal-Carou, M. C., R. Codony-Salcedo, And A. Mariné-Font. 1991. “Changes in the concentration of histamine and tyramine during wine spoilage at various temperatures.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 42: 145–149.Google Scholar
  118. Weiller, H. G., And F. Radler. 1972. “Vitamin-und Aminosäurebedarf von Milchsaurebakterien aus Wein und von Rebenblättern.” Mitt. Klosterneuburg 22: 4–18.Google Scholar
  119. Weiller, H. G., And F. Radler. 1976. “Über den Aminosäurestoffwechsel von Milchsäurebakterien aus Wein.” Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 161: 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Whiting, G. C. 1975. “Some biochemical and flavour aspects of lactic acid bacteria in ciders and other alcoholic beverages.” In, Lactic Acid Bacteria in Beverages and Food, J. G. Carr, C. V. Cutting, and G. C. Whiting, Eds., pp. 69–85. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  121. Whiting, G. C., And Coggins, R. A. 1971. “The role of quinate and shikimate in the metabolism of lactobacilli.” Ant. Leeuwen. 37: 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wibowo, D., R. Eschenbruch, C. R. Davis, G. H. Fleet, And T. H. Lee. 1985. “Occurrence and growth of lactic acid bacteria in wine: a review.” Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 36: 302–313.Google Scholar
  123. Wood, W. A. 1961. “Fermentation of carbohydrates and related compounds.” In The Bacteria, I. C. Gunsalus and R. Y. Stanier, Eds., Vol. 2, pp. 59–149. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  124. Yoshizumi H. 1975. “A malo-lactic bacterium and its growth factor.” In Lactic Acid Bacteria in Beverages and Food, J. G. Carr, C. V. Cutting, and G. C. Whiting, Eds., pp. 87–102. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  125. Zhuorong, Y., And R. E. Kunkee. 1993. “Stimulation of growth rates of malolactic bacteria from incomplete conversion of L-malic acid to L-lactic acid.” FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12 (1–3): 50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger B. Boulton
    • 1
  • Vernon L. Singleton
    • 1
  • Linda F. Bisson
    • 1
  • Ralph E. Kunkee
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations