Testosterone and aggression in male and female preschool children

  • Jose R. Sanchez-Martin
  • Eduardo Fano
  • Leonor Ahedo
  • Jaione Cardas
  • Paul F. Brain
  • Arantza Azpiroz


Testosterone titers in adults and adolescents are positively correlated with chronic aggressive behavior1,2. Current data (e.g. Miczek et al.3) supports a bi-directional model with androgens both influencing and being influenced by aggressive behavior. Brain4 also maintains that it is unlikely that androgens have a simple causal effect on human aggression and violence. Patterns of sex steroid secretion appear to alter several features (e.g. ‘aggressive feelings’, self-image and social signaling), predisposing individuals to carry out actions that can be labeled ‘aggression’. The links between endocrine secretion and human violence are clearly very complex5,6.


Preschool Child Testosterone Level Physical Aggression Basque Country Social Dominance 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose R. Sanchez-Martin
    • 1
  • Eduardo Fano
    • 1
  • Leonor Ahedo
    • 1
  • Jaione Cardas
    • 1
  • Paul F. Brain
    • 2
  • Arantza Azpiroz
    • 1
  1. 1.Area of Psychobiology. Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of the Basque CountrySan SebastiánSpain
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of WalesSwanseaUK

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