Attitude toward offenders scale

Assessment, validation and research
  • Mario Pereyra
  • Jose Eduardo Moreno


An offense can jeopardize interpersonal ties. When this happens, conflict erupts and disagreement appears. Arguments tend to start, accompanied by angry expressions and behaviors that might break up the relationship. At first there is a general feeling of discontent, accompanied by inappropriate behavior. There is always a situation before the crisis, when antagonism and the dysfunctional aspects of the relationship are processed. In this chapter we will focus on those behaviors manifested after the offensive situation. After conflict and disagreement appear, there is a process of withdrawal, which tends to involve many emotions, and which generates different reactions. This withdrawal tends to be accompanied by vindictiveness, resentment, revenge, feelings of vindication, guilt, fears, grief, anxiety and other emotions. The two people try to avoid each other. They look the other way; they do not want to see each other. This situation tends to become even more complicated with the participation of the friends or relatives of each person involved in the conflict, who may wish to show solidarity, provoke further animosity, or encourage reconciliation.


Aggressive Response Passive Response Angry Expression Aggressive Impulse Hostile Reaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Havighurst, R. J. and Taba, R, 1949, Adolescent Character and Personality. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pereyra, M., 1996, Development and Validation of an Instrument to mesure Hope-Hopelessness. Acta psiquiht Psicol Am Lat, 42(3)247–259.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pereyra, M., 1996, Estrategias y técnicas de reconciliación Psicoteca, Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Spielberger, C.D., 1985, Emotional reactions to stress: Anxiety and Anger. In How to define and research stress ( A.Eichler, M. Silverman, and D.Pratt eds.), American Psychiatric Press, Washington, pp. 65–70.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kancyper, L., 1991, Resentimiento y remordimiento. Estudio psicoanalitico. Paidós, Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lazarus, RS., and Folkman, S., 1986, Stress, Appraisal and Coping. Springer Publishing Company, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enright, RD., and Zell, RL., 1989, Problems Encountered When We Forgive One Another. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 8 (1): 52–60.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pereyra, M., 1993, Psicologia del perdón. Publika, Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pereyra, M., 1996, Development and Validation of an Instrument to mesure Hope-Hopelessness. Acta Psiquiót Psicol Am Lat, 42 (3): 247–259.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moreno, J. E., and Pereyra, M., 2000, Cuestionario de Actitudes frente a Situacions de Agravio. Universidad Adventista del Plata, Libertador San Martin, Argentina.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bar-On, R., 1994, EQI: The Emotional Quotient Inventory. Doctoral Dissertation, Tel Aviv University, Israel.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Costa, P., and McCrae, R, 1995, The Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pereyra, M., 1995, Hope-Hopelessness as a Diagnostic and Predictive Variable in the Health-Illness Process. Doctoral Dissertation, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Argentine.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Derogatis, L.R., 1977, SCL-90 (Revised) Version Manual-I. Johns Hopkins Universty, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ramirez, J., and Ramirez, J.A., 1999, Cross-Cultural Study of Attitudinal Approaches to Grievance: Testing Attitude Questionnaire Validated in Spanish. XXVII lnteramerican Congress of Psychology, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maia Santos, A.C., 1999, The ATOS-Portuguese Version. Comparative Study Between Brazilian and Argentinean Students. XXVII Interamerican Congress of Psychology, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Pereyra
    • 1
  • Jose Eduardo Moreno
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.River Plate Adventist UniversityEntre RíosArgentina
  2. 2.National Research CouncilBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations