Physical, verbal, and indirect aggression among Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh adolescents in India

  • Kaj Björkqvist
  • Karin Österman
  • T. K. Oommen
  • Kirsti M. J. Lagerspetz


The aim of the present study was to investigate the aggressive behavior of Indian adolescents of three age groups: 8, 11, and 15 years, by use of the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scales (DIAS)1. The research sample was from Delhi, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, and it consisted of adolescents from three religious groups: Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. Sex differences in aggressive behavior were one focus of the study, besides religious and age differences.


Physical Aggression Indirect Aggression Female Aggression Indian Adolescent Protective Attitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaj Björkqvist
    • 1
  • Karin Österman
    • 1
  • T. K. Oommen
    • 2
  • Kirsti M. J. Lagerspetz
    • 3
  1. 1.Åbo Akademi UniversityVasaFinland
  2. 2.Jawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.University of TurkuFinland

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