Advertisement

Reduction of stress by relaxation techniques

Their possible use in the reduction of aggression
  • José María Poveda
  • Eglée Iciarte
  • Ernesto Toro-Lira
  • Roberto Rodríguez
  • Jesús Poveda
  • J. Martín Ramírez
Chapter

Abstract

It is generally accepted that aggressive behavior is a specific feature of a more general pattern of stress reactions in response to a changing environment1. For example, vulnerability to emotional distress may be in fact related to the increased risk of aggression in political prisioners2 and in abused children, as suggested by Skarpa and Kolko3 who found that physically abused children who ‘internalized’ their abuse experiences were more likely to become aggressive4,5,6 In school, the level of the students anger and hostility was significantly connected with the frequency and intensity of stress.7,8,9 This close relationship between stress and aggression is also observed in the many emotional effects of stressful environmental factors which can be elicitors of aggression. For instance, noise can increase aggression10 and heat is also a moderately effective stimulus for increasing aggression in humans11 (see a recent review in Ramirez12)

Keywords

Abuse Child Violence Exposure Relaxation Technique Respiratory Frequency Rape Myth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    De Kloet, E.R., Korte, S.M., Rots, N.Y. and Kruk, M.R.,1996,Stress hormones, genotype and brain organization. Implications for aggression. In: CF. Ferris and T Grisso (Eds.) Understanding aggressive behavior in children. New York: New York. Academy of Sciences, pp. 179–191.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Czaja I., Gierowski J.K.,1999,Disturbances in interpersonal functioning and levels of anxiety, epression and aggression in persons persecuted for political reasons in Poland in the years 1944–1956.Psychiatr Pol. 33(3):309–319.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Skarpa, A, & Kolko, D.J., 1996, Aggression in physically abused children. The role of distress proneness. In: CF. Ferris and T. Grisso (Eds.) Understanding aggressive behavior in children. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, pp. 405–407.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Skarpa, A., 2000, Violence associated with anger and impulsivity. In: Borod, J. (Ed). The neuropsychology of emotion Series in affective science,pp. 320–339. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwartz D., Proctor U., 2000, Community violence exposure and children’s social adjustment in the school peer group: the mediating roles of emotion regulation and social cognition. J Consult Clin Psycho!. 68 (4): 670–83.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pinderhughes E.E, Dodge K.A., Bates J.E., Pettit G.S., Zelli A.,2000,Discipline responses: influences of parents’ socioeconomic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress, and cognitive-emotional processes. JFam Psycho!. 14(3):380400.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Piekarska, A.,1996, Stress, anger, and hostility felt by students as a consequence of sub-abusive violence by the teachers. In: C.F.Ferris and T.Grisso (Eds.). Understanding aggressive behavior in children. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, pp. 179–191.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geen, R.G.,1981,Behavioral and physiological reactions to observed violence: effects of prior exposure to aggressive stimuli. JPers Soc Psycho!. 40 (5):868–875.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hamishfeger, B.,1998,The relationship of gender role conflict to male college student’s receipt and use of violence in heterosexual dating relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Science and Engineering.59 (6-B)3108.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geen, R.G.,1978, Effects of attack and uncontrollable noise on aggression. Journal of Research in Personality. 12: 15–29.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anderson, CA.,1989, Temperature and aggression: the ubiquitous effects of heat on the occurrence of human violence. Psychological Bulletin. 106: 74–96.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ramirez, J.M., 2000, Agresión Un enfoque psicobiológico. Valencia: Promolibros.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lazarus, A.A. and Folkman,. S. 1963. Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Selye, H.,1956, The stress of life. New York.Me Graw-Hill.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cannon,M.B.,1956, Body changes in pain, anger, fear and rage. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ossowska G., Klenk-Majewska B., Danilczuk Z., Wrobel A., Zebrowska-Lupina L, I999,Reversal of stress-induced deficit in aggression by monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Pol JPharmacol. 51(5)391–397.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gem, RG.,1972, Effects of the behavior and the perceived arousal of a model on instruments of aggression. J Pers. Soc. Psycho!. 23 (2):175–83.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mammen OK, Pilkonis PA, Kolko DJ.,2000,Anger and parent-to-child aggression in mood and anxiety disorders. Compr. Psychiatry. 41(6):461–468.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Poveda,J.M.,1996, La Agresividad y sus Trastornos, in P. Ridruejo (Ed),Psicologia Medico,Madrid:McGraw-Hill.lnteramerica,219–229.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gem, RG.,1971,Effects of aggressiveness habits strength on behavior in the presence of aggressive related stimuli. J Pers. Soc. Psycho!. 17 (2):149–153.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Greenberg,J.S.,1996,.Comprehensive Stress Management. Chicago: Brown and Benchmark.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gem, RG.,1985, Test anxiety and visual vigilance. J Pers. Soc.Psychol.49 (4):963–970.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Strategier,L.,1999, Effectiveness of sexual assault interventions: A behavioral approach (Risk reduction, communication, dating, aggression, rape myth, gender differences. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Science and Engineering. 60 (4-B) 9: 191.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ornstein, 8.,1997,. The Evolution Of Consciousness. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jacobson,E.I973, Teaching and learning new methods for old arts Chicago: National Foundation for Progressive Relaxation.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schultz, J.,1969, Das Autogenes Training (Konzentrative Selbstentspannung) Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pastor y Aldeguer, V, Poveda de Agustin, J., Rodriguez Fernandez, M. L, Santa-Maria Morales y Lopez Jimenez R.,2000.Evaluacion de algunos aspectos psicosociales de los estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Educación Médica.3(3):32–41.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith J.J. and Kampine J.P. 1984, Circulation Physiolog..The essenlials.Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Huxley,T.H.,1888, Lessons in Elementary Physiology. London: Mc.Millan.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Manual SPSS Advanced Statistics 7.5, 1997, Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • José María Poveda
    • 1
  • Eglée Iciarte
    • 1
  • Ernesto Toro-Lira
    • 1
  • Roberto Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Jesús Poveda
    • 1
  • J. Martín Ramírez
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversidad Autónoma de MadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of PsychobiologyUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations