The relationship between playing violent electronic games and aggression in adolescents
The concern with the effect of exposure to violent contents on behavior is not recent and has been the subject of intense research. Earlier findings on exposure to violence on television (TV) indicated that: (1) people can learn aggressive behaviors and attitudes1; (2) it may reinforce the behavior of already aggressive people; (3) it may desensitize individuals to violence, turning them indifferent to other people’s suffering2, and to an increasing acceptance of violence in real 1ife3–4; and (4) it can lead to a distorted perception of the world, in which they overestimate their risk of victimisation5. Berkowitz6 mentioned that exposure to violence in the media is most likely to increase the probability of aggressive behavior if the individuals are under the following conditions: (a) the focus of attention is directed to the aggression instead of focusing on other aspects; (b) the observed violence is not punished, nor does it have adverse consequences for the aggressor; (c) the individual identifies himself with aggressive models; and (d) the portrayal of violence is not considered inappropriate or unjustified.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Linz, D., Donnerstein, E., and Penrod, S., 1987, Sexual Violence in the Mass Media: Social Psychological Implications. In: P. Shaver and C. Hendrick (Eds.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 7, 95–123 ). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- 5.Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., and Signorielli, N., 1986, Living with television: The dynamics of the cultivation process. In: J. Bryant and D. Zillmann (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects ( I7. 40 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- 6.Berkowitz, L. B., 1993, Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- 7.Monteiro, M.B., 1984, La constrution sociale de la violence: Une perspective cognitive et developpementale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University Cat. De Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve.Google Scholar
- 8.Vala, J., 1984, La Production Sociale de la Violence, Représentations et Comportements. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University Cat. De Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve.Google Scholar
- 9.Kinder, M., 1996, Contextualizing video game violence: From Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 1 to Mortal Kombat 2. In: P. M. Greenfield and R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Interacting with video: Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology (Vol. 1 I, 25–37). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
- 10.Griffiths, M. D., 1997, Video games and aggression. The Psychologist 10, 397–401.Google Scholar
- 11.Griffiths, M. D., 1993, Are computer games bad for children? The Psychologist, 6, 40 1407.Google Scholar
- 12.Simóes, A., 1993, Sao os homens mais agressivos que as mulheres? Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia, 3, 387–404.Google Scholar
- 14.Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G., 1975, Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (adult and junior). London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
- 15.Fonseca, A. C., and Eysenck, S. B. G., 1989, Estudo intercultural da personalidade: comparaçao de crianças portuguesas e inglesas no EPQ-Júnior. Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia, XXIII, 323–345.Google Scholar
- 21.Huesmann, L.R., 1982, Television violence and aggressive behavior. In: D. Pearl, L. Bouthilet, and J. Lazar (Eds.), Television and behavior. Ten years of scientific programs and implications for the 80’s ( 126–137 ). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar