Advertisement

Positioning Exchange in the Evolution of Human Society

  • Timothy Earle
Part of the Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology book series (IDCA)

Abstract

Contributors to Prehistoric Exchange Systems in North America summarize valiantly changing patterns of exchange. What can help us understand temporal variation across the continent? Why do systems of exchange rapidly expand only to collapse and reformulate? J. Johnson (Chapter 5) describes prehistoric exchange as “episodic” and tells us that to explain the exchange, we must focus on the “difference in social organization.” In this chapter, taking an explicit materialist perspective, I will try to position exchange within a general scheme of social evolution and to explain the processes that intertwine economic and social organizations.

Keywords

Complex Society Wealth Finance Subsistence Economy American Antiquity Late Archaic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, D., 1990, Political Change in Chiefdom Societies: Cycling in the Late Prehistoric Southeastern United States, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, J., 1987, Craft Specialization, in the Prehistoric Channel Islands, California, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, J., 1992, Complex Hunter-Gatherer-Fishers of Prehistoric California: Chiefs, Specialists, and Marine Adaptations of the Channel Islands, American Antiquity 57: 60–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Binford, L., 1980, Willow Smoke and Dogs’ Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation, American Antiquity 45: 4–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradley, R., 1984, The Social Foundations of Prehistoric Britain, Harlow, London.Google Scholar
  6. Braun, D., 1986, Midwestern Hopewellian Exchange and Supralocal Interaction, in: Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-political Change ( C. Renfrew and J. Cherry, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 117–126.Google Scholar
  7. Braun, D., and S. Plog, 1982, Evolution of “Tribal” Social Networks: Theory and Prehistoric North American Evidence, American Antiquity 43: 504–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brumfiel, E., 1980, Specialization, Exchange and the Aztec State: A View from Huexotla, Current Anthropology 21: 459–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brumfiel, E., and T. Earle, 1987, Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies: An Introduction, in: Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies ( E. M. Brumfiel and T. K. Earle, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  10. Castillo Butter, L. J., T. Earle and E. DeMarraìs, 1992, Materialization of Ideology as a Means for Political Control, Paper presented at the 1st Biennial Meeting of the Complex Society Group, Tempe, AZ, Oct. 1993.Google Scholar
  11. Childe, V. G., 1936, Man Makes Himself, Watts, London.Google Scholar
  12. Cobb, C., 1989, An Appraisal of the Role of Mill Creek Chert Hoes in Mississippian Exchange Systems, Southwestern Archaeology 8: 79–92.Google Scholar
  13. Cobb, C., 1991, Archaeological Investigations of a Mississippian Period Production for Exchange System, National Science Foundation Grant Proposal, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. Dalton, G., 1977, Aboriginal Economies in Stateless Societies, in: Exchange Systems in Prehistory ( T. Earle and J. Ericson, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 191–212.Google Scholar
  15. D’Altroy, T., and T. Earle, 1985, Staple Finance, Wealth Finance, and Storage in the Inca Political Economy, Current Anthropology 26: 187–206.Google Scholar
  16. Douglas, B., 1979, Rank, Power, Authority: A Reassessment of Traditional Leadership in South Pacific Societies, Journal Of Pacific History 14: 2–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Earle, T., 1977, A Reappraisal of Redistribution: Complex Hawaiian Chiefdoms, in: Exchange Systems in Prehistory ( T. Earle and J. Ericson, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 213–229.Google Scholar
  18. Earle, T., 1978, Economic and Social Organization of a Complex Chiefdom: The Halelea District, Kaua’i,Hawaii, Anthropological Papers 63, Museum Of Anthropology, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  19. Earle, T., 1982, The Ecology and Politics of Primitive Valuables, in: Culture and Ecology: Eclectic Perspectives ( J. Kennedy and R. Edgerton, eds.), American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., pp. 65–83.Google Scholar
  20. Earle, T., 1985, Commodity Exchange and Markets in the Inca State: Recent Archaeological Evidence, in:Google Scholar
  21. Markets and Marketing (S. Plattner, ed.), University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, pp. 369–397.Google Scholar
  22. Earle, T., 1987, Chiefdoms in Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Perspective, Annual Review Of Anthro-pology 16: 279–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Earle, T., 1989, The Evolution of Chiefdoms, Current Anthropology 30: 84–88.Google Scholar
  24. Earle, T., 1991, Chiefdoms: Power, Economy, and Ideology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Earle, T., and T. D’Altroy, 1989, The Political Economy of the Inka Empire: The Archaeology of Power and Finance, in: Archaeological Thought in America (C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 183–204.Google Scholar
  25. Ford, R., 1974, Northeastern Archaeology: Past and Future Directions, Annual Review of Anthropology 3: 385–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fried, M. H., 1967, The Evolution of Political Society: An Essay in Political Economy, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Friedman, J., and M. J. Rowlands, 1978, Notes towards an Epigenetic Model of the Evolution of “Civilization,” in: The Evolution of Social Systems (J. Friedman and M. Rowlands, eds.), Duckworth, London, pp. 201–276.Google Scholar
  28. Gibson, J., 1974, Poverty Point, the First North American Chiefdom, Archaeology 27: 96–105.Google Scholar
  29. Gibson, J., 1987, Poverty Point Trade and the Archaic—Woodland Transition,Paper presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Toronto.Google Scholar
  30. Gilman, A., 1987, Unequal Development in Copper Age Iberia, in: Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies ( E. M. Brumfiel and T. K. Earle, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 22–29.Google Scholar
  31. Goodyear, A. C., 1989, A Hypothesis for the Use Of Cryptocrystalline Raw Materials among Paleoindian Groups of North America, in: Eastern Paleoindian Lithic Resource Use ( C. J. Ellis and J. L. Lothrop, eds.), Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  32. Halstead, P., and J. O’Shea, 1982, A Friend in Need is a Friend Indeed: Social Storage and the Origins of Social Ranking, in: Ranking, Resource and Exchange ( C. Renfrew and S. Shennan, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 92–99.Google Scholar
  33. Helms, M. W., 1979, Ancient Panama: Chiefs in Search of Power, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  34. Johnson, A., and T. Earle, 1987, The Evolution of Human Societies: From Forager Group to Agrarian State, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  35. Kristiansen, K., 1984, Ideology and Material Culture: An Archaeological Perspective, in: Marxist Perspectives in Archaeology ( M. Spriggs, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 72–100.Google Scholar
  36. Marx, K., 1904 (1857–58), A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: Translated from the Second German Edition by N. I. Stone, Charles H. Kerr, Chicago.Google Scholar
  37. Morris, C., 1967, Storage in Tawatinsuyu, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  38. Morrow, C., and R. W. Jefferies, 1989, Trade or Embedded Procurement?: A Test Case from Southern Illinois, in: Time, Energy and Stone Tools ( R. Torrence, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 27–33.Google Scholar
  39. Muller, J., 1984, Mississippian Specialization and Salt, American Antiquity 49: 489–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Muller, J., 1987, Salt, Chert, and Shell: Mississippian Exchange and Economy, in: Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies ( E. M. Brumfiel and T. Earle, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,pp. 10–21.Google Scholar
  41. O’Shea, J., 1984, Mortuary Variability: An Archaeological Investigation, Academic Press, Orlando. Oswalt, W., 1976, An Anthropological Analysis of Food Getting Technology, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Peebles, C., and S. Kus, 1977, Some Archaeological Correlates of Ranked Society, American Antiquity 42: 421–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rappaport, R., 1968, Pigs for the Ancestors, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  44. Rathje, W., 1970, Socio-political Implications of Lowland Maya Burials, World Archaeology 1:359–374. Renfrew, C., 1977, Alternative Models for Exchange and Spatial Distribution, in: Exchange Systems in Prehistory ( T. Earle and J. Ericson, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 71–91.Google Scholar
  45. Renfrew, C., and J. Cherry, 1986, Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-political Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  46. Rice, P., 1981, Evolution of Specialized Pottery Production: A Trial Model, Current Anthropology 22: 219240.Google Scholar
  47. Sahlins, M., 1963, Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man, Chief: Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia, Comparative Studies in Society and History 5: 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sahlins, M., 1972, Stone Age Economics, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  49. Sanders, W., 1956, The Central Mexican Symbiotic Region, in: Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in The New World ( G. Willey, ed.), Viking Fund Publication, New York, pp. 115–127.Google Scholar
  50. Service, E., 1962, Primitive Social Organization: An Evolutionary Perspective, Random House, New York. Smith, A., 1976 [17761, The Wealth of Nations, University of Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  51. Steward, J., 1938, Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  52. Steward, J., 1955, Theory of Culture Change, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  53. Strathern, A., 1971, The Rope of Moka, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Torrence, R., 1989, Retooling towards a Behavioral Theory of Stone Tools, in: Time, Energy and Stone Tools ( R. Torrence, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 57–66.Google Scholar
  55. Wiessner, P., 1982, Beyond Willow Smoke and Dogs’ Tails: A Comment on Binford’s Analysis of Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems, American Antiquity 47: 171–178.Google Scholar
  56. Winters, H., 1981, Excavating in Museums: Notes on Mississippian Hoes and Middle Woodland Copper Gouges and Celts, in: The Research Potential Of Anthropological Museum Collections (A. Cantwell, J. B. Griffin, and N. A. Rothschild, eds.), Annals Of The New York Academy of Science Number 376, pp. 17–33.Google Scholar
  57. Wright, H., and M. A. Zeder, 1977, The Simulation of a Linear Exchange System under Equilibrium Conditions, in: Exchange Systems in Prehistory (T. Earle and J, Ericson, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 233–253.Google Scholar
  58. Vayda, A., 1967, Pomo Trade Feasts, in: Tribal and Peasant Economies ( G. Dalton, ed.), The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, pp. 494–500.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy Earle
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Archaeology and Department of AnthropologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations