Advertisement

Glass Points of Polymer Networks

  • A. J. Chompff

Abstract

A model for a polymer network is developed to establish analytical relations between the glass point, T, and structural features of amorphous networks and to allow prediction of T with changes in chemistry. In this model the network is treaed as a ternary copolymer of branch points, chain segments and chain ends, each of which contributes a different amount of free volume to the total system according to rules similar to those used in ternary copolymers or mixtures. It is shown that changes in T due to plasticization, copolymerization, molecular weight, branchng, cross-linking, chain scission, etc. do occur as logical consequences of a well known free volume theory. Where possible, these calculated results have been corroborated with literature data.

Keywords

Branch Point Free Volume Crosslinking Agent Polymer Network Poly Vinyl Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T. G. Fox and S. Loshaek, J. Polymer Sci. 15, 371 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Loshaek, J. Polymer Sci. 15, 391 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. J. Batschinski, Z. Physik. Chem. 84, 644 (1913).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. K. Doolittle and D. B. Doolittle, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 901 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. A. Kovacs, J. Polymer Sci. 30, 131 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. J. D. Ferry and R. A. Stratton, Kolloid Z., 171, 107 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. H. Fujita and A. Kishimoto, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 393 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. H. Fujita, Fortschr. Hochpolym. Forsch. 3, 1 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. A. Teramoto, R. Okada and H. Fujita, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 1228 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. D. J. Plazek, and J. H. Magill, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 3038 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. A. J. Matheson, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 695 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. K. H. Hellwege, W. Knappe, F. Paul and V. Semjonow, Rheol. Acta 6, 165 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. S. P. Chen and J. D. Ferry, Macromolecules 1, 270 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 5.
    A. K. Doolittle, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1471 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. A. K. Doolittle, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 236 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 6.
    M. H. Cohen and D. Turnbull, J. Chem. Phys. 31, 1164 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 7.
    J. D. Ferry, “Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers,” 2nd Edition (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N. Y., 1970), Ohs. 11, 12 and 17A.Google Scholar
  18. 8.
    A. J. Kovacs, Fortschr. Hochpolym. Forsch. 3, 394 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 9.
    M. C. Shen and A. Eisenberg, Rubber Chem. and Tech. 43, 95 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 10.
    R. F. Boyer, Rubber Chem. and Tech. 36, 1303 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 11.
    G. Braun and A. J. Kovacs, In: “Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids,” J. A. Prins, Ed. ( North Holland Publishing Comp., Amsterdam, 1965 ), pp. 303–319.Google Scholar
  22. 12.
    A. J. Kovacs, Rheologica Acta 5, 262 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 13.
    K. C. Rusch, J. Macromol. Sci. B2, 179 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 14.
    K. C. Rusch and R. H. Beck, Jr., J. Macromol. Sci. B3, 365 (1969).Google Scholar
  25. 15.
    J. H. Gibbs and E. A. DiMarzio, J. Chem. Phys. 28, 373 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 16.
    G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 17.
    E. Jenckel and R. Heusch, Kolloid Z. 130, 89 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 18.
    K. H. Illers, Kolloid Z. 190, 16 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 19.
    P. J. Flory, J. L. Ellenson and B. E. Eichinger, Macromolecules 1, 279 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 20.
    M. Gordon and J. S. Taylor, J. Appl. Chem. 2, 493 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 21.
    F. N. Kelley and F. Bueche, J. Polymer Sci. 50, 549 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 22.
    L. J. Garfield and S. E. Petrie, J. Phys. Chem. 68, 1750 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 23.
    F. A. Bovey and G. V. D. Tiers, J. Polymer Sci. 44, 173 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. F. E. Karasz and W. J. MacKnight, Macromolecules 1, 537 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 24.
    S. S. Labana, S. Newman and A. J. Chompff, Paper number 22 of these “Proceedings.”Google Scholar
  36. 25.
    R. Simha and R. Boyer, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1003 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 26.
    A. J. Chompff and J. A. Duiser, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 1505 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 27.
    F. Bueche, “Physical Properties of Polymers,” ( Interscience Publ., New York, 1962 ) pp. 113–116.Google Scholar
  39. 28.
    K. Ninomiya, J. D. Ferry and Y. Oyanagi, J. Phys. Chem. 67, 2297 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 29.
    A. Eisenberg and T. Sasada, In: “Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids,” J. A. Prins, Ed. ( North Holland Publishing Comp., Amsterdam, 1965 ) pp. 99–116.Google Scholar
  41. 30.
    K. Ueberreiter and G. Kanig, J. Chem. Phys. 18, 399 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 31.
    T. G. Fox and P. J. Flory, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 581 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 32.
    K. Ueberreiter and G. Kanig, J. Colloid Sci. 7, 569 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 33.
    M. C. Shen and A. V. Tobolsky, Adv. in Chem. Series, 48, 27 (1965).Google Scholar
  45. 34.
    J. F. Pierson and A. J. Kovacs, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  46. 35.
    W. Kuhn and H. Kuhn, Helv. Chim. Acta 26, 1394 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 36.
    K. C. Busch, J. Macromol. Sci. B2, 421 (1968).Google Scholar
  48. 37.
    W. A. Lee and G. J. Knight, In: “Polymer Handbook,” J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, Eds., (Interscience Publishers, New York, 1966) Ch. III, pp. 61–91.Google Scholar
  49. 38.
    T. G. Fox and P. J. Flory, J. Polymer Sci. 14, 315 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 39.
    J. F. Pierson, Thesis, University of Strasbourg, 1968.Google Scholar
  51. 40.
    T. Masuda, K. Kitagawa and S. Onogi, Polymer J. 1, 418 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 41.
    A. J. Chompff, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1566 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 42.
    L. E. Nielsen, J. Macromol. Sci.-Revs. Macromol. Chem. C3, 69 (1969).Google Scholar
  54. 43.
    T. F. Schatzki, Polym. Prepr., Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem., 6, 646 (1965).Google Scholar
  55. 44.
    P. Meares, Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 31 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 45.
    J. A. Faucher, J. V. Koleske, E. R. Santee Jr., J. J. Stratta, and C. W. Wilson, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3962 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 46.
    J. A. Faucher, Polymer Letters, 3, 143 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 47.
    Shell Chemical Company.Google Scholar
  59. 48.
    H. Lee and K. Neville, “Handbook of Epoxy Resins,” (McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, 1967) pp. 10–5 to 10–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Chompff
    • 1
  1. 1.Ford Motor CompanyDearbornUSA

Personalised recommendations