Scintillation and Semiconductor Counters
As stated in Chapter 7, the detection efficiency of γ- and x-rays in gas detectors is very low, because these penetrating radiations travel through the low-density gas with little interaction. To improve counting efficiency for these radiations, solid and liquid scintillation detectors with high density are used. These detectors have the unique property of emitting scintillations or flashes of light after absorbing γ- or x-radiations. The light photons produced are converted to an electrical pulse by means of a photomultiplier (PM) tube (described later). The pulse is then amplified by a linear amplifier, sorted by a pulse-height analyzer (PHA) and then registered as a count. Different solid or liquid detectors are used for different types of radiation. For example, sodium iodide crystals containing a trace of thallium (NaI[Tl]) are used for γ- and x-ray detection, whereas organic crystals such as anthracene and plastic fluors are used for β-particle detection.
KeywordsDead Time Semiconductor Detector Light Photon Radioactive Sample Linear Amplifier
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