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Approaches to the Quantification of Tissue Pigments by NIR in Vivo Using a Double Beam Method to Multicomponent Curve Fitting Analysis

  • Shoko Nioka
  • Kouich Oka

Abstract

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can be used as a non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygen transport and metabolism by indicating the levels of hemoglobin saturation and the redox state of cytochrome oxidase. Jobsis and others1,11 have applied NIR spectroscopy to isolated mitochondria, and tissues, in vitro and in vivo. One of the advantages of using near infrared wavelengths rather than visible light is that the penetration of the photons is much greater because of the physical properties of light and the low extinction coefficients of the tissue pigments at these wavelengths. It has been found that the mean light path length varies with wavelength when measured by time resolved spectroscopy (TRS)2 and other techniques3. Physical studies have indicated that in a scattering medium, such as brain tissue and cells, the photons migrate as a diffusing or randomly walking particle making application of the Beer-Lambert law difficult4,5,6. The light pathlength varies depending upon the wavelengths, materials, and concentrations of absorbing pigments. Theoretical equations have been developed to fit the data7,8. Quantification of the scattering factor is necessary in order to quantitate tissue concentration of absorbers. The contribution of the absorber to the total absorption in the scattering medium depends upon the wavelength as well as the extinction coefficient9,5. Time resolved spectroscopy shows similar properties of light diffusion (distribution of the light path) at 700 to 800 nm (Nioka, unpublished data). Near infrared light may be best suited to minimizing the scattering problem. Some researchers have ignored the effect of scattering and calculated the absorptions of hemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase separately10–15,1.

Keywords

Difference Spectrum Light Path Light Guide Near Infrared Spectroscopy Hemoglobin Saturation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shoko Nioka
    • 1
  • Kouich Oka
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Biochemistry/BiophysicsUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Otsuka Electronics, Ltd.OsakaJapan

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