HLA-B27-Associated Spondyloarthritis and Enthesopathy

  • Jerry C. Jacobs


Spondyloarthritis is a new term that “lumps” patients with a group of interrelated familial arthropathies into one diagnostic category and more definitively differentiates patients with milder manifestations of this form of arthritis from those with RA.1–8


Ankylose Spondylitis Human Leukocyte Antigen Reactive Arthritis Plantar Fascia Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Moll JMH, Maslock I, Macrae I, et al.: Association between ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Reiter’s disease, the intestinal arthropathies, and Behcet’s syndrome. Medicine 53: 343–346, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moll JMH: Ankylosing Spondylitis. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jacobs JC: HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthritis in children. Arthritis Rheum 23: 695–696, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jacobs JC: Arthritis as a manifestation of connective tissue disease. In Moore TD (ed.) Arthritis in Childhood. Report of the Eightieth Ross Conference on Pediatric Research. Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, 1981, pp. 18–23.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jacobs JC, Johnston AD, Berdon WE: HLA-ß27 associated spondyloarthritis and enthesopathy in childhood. J Pediatr 100: 521–528, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dougados M, van der Linden S, Juhlin R, et al.: The European spondyloarthropathy study group preliminary critieria for the classification of spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum 34: 1218–1227, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wright V: Seronegative polyarthritis: A unified concept. Arthritis Rheum 21: 619–633, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calin A: Ankylosing spondylitis. In Kelley WN, Harris ED Jr, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds.) Textbook of Rheumatology, Vol. 2. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 1021–1037.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Calin A: Reiter’s syndrome. In Kelley WN, Harris ED Jr, Ruddy S, Sledge CB (eds.) Textbook of Rheumatology, Vol. 2. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 1038–1052.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brewerton DA. Many genes, many clinical features. Ann Rheum Dis 38 (Suppl. 1): 145–148, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willkens RF, Arnett FC, Bitter T, et al.: Reiter’s syndrome: evaluation of preliminary criteria for definite disease. Arthritis Rheum 24: 844–848, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gaucher A, Weryha G, Perrier P, et al.: Autosomal dominant arthropathy in a French family. Arthritis Rheum 34: 737–743, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scott SG: A Monograph on Adolescent Spondylitis or Ankylosing Spondylitis. Oxford University Press, London, 1942.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ransohoff DF, Feinstein AR: Problem of spectrum and bias in evaluating the efficacy of diagnostic tests. N Engl J Med 299: 926–930, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Conn RB, Brynes RK: Transfer of research technology to clinical practice—what are the criteria? Editorial. N Engl J Med 302: 686–688, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schaller JG, Hansen JA: HLA relationships to disease. Hosp Pract 16: 41–49, 1981.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Suici-Foca N, King DW: The HLA system; structure and function. In Saunter M. Talmage DW, Frank MM, Austen FK, Claman HN (eds.) Immunological Diseases. Vol. 1, Chapter 17, pp. 385–410, 1988; Little Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jackson JF, Currier RD, Terasaki PI, et al.: Spinocerebellar ataxia and HLA linkage: Risk prediction by HLA typing. N Engl J Med 296: 1138–1141, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kidd KK: Genetic linkage and hemochromatosis. Editorial. N Engl J Med 301: 209–210, 1979.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mauseth RS, Hansen JA, Smith EK, et al.: Detection of heterozygotes for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 21-hydroxylase deficiency—a comparison of HLA typing and 17-OH progesterone response to ACTH infusion. J Pediatr 97: 749753, 1980.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Winchester RJ: The HLA system and susceptibility to diseases: an interpretation. Clin Aspects Autoimmun 1: 9–26, 1986.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Dalton TA, Bennett JC: Autoimmune disease and the major histocompatibility complex: Therapeutic implications. Am J Med 92: 183–188, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Segall M, Bach FH: HLA and disease. The perils of simplification. N Eng J Med 322: 1879–1881, 1990.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Koivuranta-Vaara P, Repo H, Leirisalo M, et al.: Enhanced neutrophil migration in vivo HLA B27 positive subjects. Ann Rheum Dis 43: 181–185, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Pease CT, Fordham JN, Currey HLF: Polymorphonuclear cell motility, ankylosing spondylitis, and HLA B27. Ann Rheum Dis 43: 279–284, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Robinson WP, van der Linden SM, Khan MA, et al.: HLA-Bw60 increases susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 + patients. Arthritis Rheum 32: 1135–1141, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Ebringer R, Ebringer A: Ankylosing spondylitis: host-parasite interaction in the production of rheumatological disease. In Buchanan WW, Dick WC (eds.) Recent Advances in Rheumatology, Number two. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1981, pp. 107–120.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Ford DK, da Roza DM, Ward RH: Arthritis confined to knee joints. Synovial lymphocyte responses to microbial antigens correlate with distribution of HLA. Arthritis Rheum 27: 1157–1164, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Miehle W, Schattenkirchner M, Albert D, Bunge M: HLA-DR 4 in ankylosing spondylitis with different patterns of joint involvement. Ann Rheum Dis 44: 3944, 1985.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Hammer RE, Maka SD, Richardson JA, et al.: Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and Human B2m: An animal model of HLA-B27-associated human disorders. Cell 63: 1099–1112, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    McDevitt HO: Current concepts in immunology: Regulation of the immune response by the major histocompatibility system. N Engl J Med 303: 1514–1517, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    McGuigan LE, Geczy AF, Edmonds JP: The immunopathology of ankylosing spondylitis-A review. Semin Arthritis Rheum 15: 81–105, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Hawkins BR, Dawkins RL, Christiansen FT, et al.: Use of the B27 test in diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis: A statistical evaluation. Arthritis Rheum 24: 743–744, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Cofton JP, Chalmers A, Price GE, et al.: HL-A 27 and ankylosing spondylitis in British Columbian Indians. J Rheumatol 2: 314–318, 1975.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Rate RG, Morse HG, Bonnell MD, et al.: “Navajo arthritis” reconsidered. Relationship to HLA-B27. Arthritis Rheum 23: 1299–1302, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Ostensen M, Romberg O, Husby G: Ankylosing spondylitis and motherhood. Arthritis Rheum 25: 140–143, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Burgos-Vargas R, Petty RE: Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 18: 123–142, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    McDaniel DO, Acton RT, Barger BO, et al.: Association of a 9.2-kilobase Pvu II Class I major histocompatibility complex restriction fragment length polymorphism with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 30: 894–900, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Kidd B, Mullee M, Frank A, Cawley M: Disease expression of ankylosing spondylitis in males and females. J Rheumatol 15: 1407–1409, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Lynn TN: Rheumatoid spondylitis in a prepubertal female. Am J Dis Child 91: 158–161, 1956.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Edstrom G, Thune S, Wittbom-Cigen G: Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Acta Rheum Scand 6: 161–173, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Jacobs P: Ankylosing spondylitis in children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child 38: 492–499, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Ellefsen F: Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Acta Rheum Scand 13: 14–19, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Schaller JG, Bitnum S, Wedgwood RJ: Ankylosing spondylitis with childhood onset. J Pediatr 74: 505–516, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Ladd JR, Cassidy JT, Martel W: Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 14: 579–590, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Bywaters EGL: Ankylosing spondylitis in childhood. In Ansell BD (ed.) Clinics in Rheumatic Diseases, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1976, pp. 387–396.Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Kleinman P, Rivelis M, Schneider R, et al.: Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Radiology 125: 775–780, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Hart FD: Ankylosing spondylitis. Lancet 2: 1340–1344, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Bitter T, Jeannet M, deHaller E, et al.: Persistent yet reversible asymmetric pauciarthritis (PRAP): A B27-associated cluster. Ann Rheum Dis 38 (Suppl. 1): 84–91, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Sheerin KA, Giannini EH, Brewer EJ, Barron KS: HLA-B27-associated arthropathy in childhood: long-term clinical and diagnostic outcome. Arthritis Rheum 31: 1165–1170, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Calin A, Marder A, Marks S, et al.: Familial aggregation of Reiter’s syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis: a comparative study. J Rheumatol 11: 672–677, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Hammer M, Zeidler H, Klimsa S, Heesemann J: Yersinia enterocolitica in the synovial membrane of patients with Yersinia-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 33: 1795–1800, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. a.Arnett FC: Pathogenesis of the spondylarthropathies. Bull Rheum Dis (Arthritis Foundation) 40:(#6)1–3, 1991.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Hoenig LJ: The arthritis of Christopher Columbus. Arch Intern Med 152: 274277, 1992.Google Scholar
  55. 53.
    Keat A: Reiter’s sydrome and reactive arthritis in perspective. N Eng J Med 309: 1606–1615, 1983.Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Shafer, N: Why Reiter’s disease? NY State Med 77: 1913–1918, 1977.Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Rosenberg AM, Petty RE: Reiter’s disease in children. Am J Dis Child 133: 394398, 1979.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Hakansson U, Low B, Eitrem R, et al.: HLA-B27 and reactive arthritis in an outbreak of salmonellosis. Tissue Antigens 6: 366–367, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Inman RD, Johnston MEA, Hodge M, et al.: Postdysenteric reactive arthritis. A clinical and immunogenetic study following an outbreak of salmonellosis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 1377–1383, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 58.
    Hannu TJ, Leirisalo-Repo M: Clinical picture of reactive salmonella arthritis. J Rheumatol 15: 1688–1671, 1988.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Calin A, Goulding N, Brewerton D: Reactive arthropathy following Salmonella vaccination. Arthritis Rheum 30:1197, 1987. (see also correspondence 31: 1454 1455 ).Google Scholar
  62. 60.
    Keat, AC, Maini RN, Nkwazi GC, et al.: Role of Chlamydia trachomatis and HLAB27 in sexually acquired reactive arthritis. Br Med J 1: 605–607, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 61.
    Editorial. Ankylosing spondylitis and its early diagnosis. Lancet 2: 591–592, 1977.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Leirisalo M, Skylv G, Kouse M, et al.: Followup study on partients with Reiter’s disease and reactive arthritis, with special reference to HLA-B27. Arthritis Rheum 25: 249–259, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Leirisalo-Repo M, Suoranta H: Ten-year follow-up study of patients with Yersinia arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 533–537, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Mau W et al.: Clincal features and prognosis of patients with possible ankylosing spondylitis: Results of a 10-year follow-up. J Rheumatol 15: 1109–1114, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Paronen I: Reiter’s disease; a study of 344 cases observed in Finland. Acta Med Scand 131 [Suppl.] 212, 1948.Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Sairanen E, Paronen I, Mahonen H: Reiter’s syndrome: A follow-up study. Acta Med Scand 185: 57–63, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Aho K, Ahvonen P, Alkio P, et al.: HL-A27 in reactive arthritis following infection. Ann Rheum Dis 34 (Suppl.): 29–30, 1975.Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Rachelefsky GS, Stiehm ER: Histocompatibility locus antigen W27 and the rheumatic diseases. Pediatrics 56: 498–500, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Schaller JG, Ochs HD, Thomas ED, et al.: Histocompatibility antigens in childhood-onset arthritis. J Pediatr 88: 926–930, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 70.
    Constantz R, Bluestone R: Diagnosis of the seronegative spondyloarthropathies: HLA-B27 testing as an aid to diagnosis. Contemp Orthop 2: 141–147, 1980.Google Scholar
  73. 71.
    Nasrallah NS, Masi AT, Chandler RW, et al.: HLA-B27 antigen and rheumatoid factor negative (seronegative) peripheral arthritis. Studies in younger patients with early-diagnosed arthritis. Am J Med 63: 379–386, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Khan MA: Editorial Comment. J Rheumatol 16: 634–636, 1989.Google Scholar
  75. 73.
    Reynolds TL, Khan MA, van der Linden S, Cleveland RP: Differences in HLAB27 positive and negative patients with ankylosing spondylitis: study of clinical disease activity and concentrations of serum IgA, C reactive protein, and haptoglobin. Ann Rheum Dis 50: 154–157, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Cahn A, Elswood J: Relative role of genetic and environmental factors in disease expression: Sib pair analysis in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 32: 77–81, 1989.Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    van der Linden SM, Valkenburg HA, de Jongh BM, Cats A: The risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 positive individuals. A comparison of relatives of spondylitis patients with the general population. Arthritis Rheum 27:241–249, 1984 (see also correspondence p. 1438 ).Google Scholar
  78. 76.
    Khan MA, van der Linden SM, Kushner I, et al.: Spondylitic disease without radiologie evidence of sacroilitis in relatives of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis patients. Arthritis Rheum 28: 40–43, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Lauhio A, Landevirta J, Janes R, et al.: Reactive arthritis associated with shigella sonnei infection. Arthritis Rheum 31: 1190–1193, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Eastmond CJ, Norris Rennie JA, Reid TMS: An outbreak of campylobacter enteritis-A rheumatological followup survey. J Rheumatol 10: 107–108, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    Ebright JR, Ryan LM: Acute erosive reactive arthritis associated with campylobacterjejuni-induced colitis. Am J Med 76: 321–322, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    Ganfors K, Jalkanen S, VonEssen R, et al.: Yersenia antigens in synovial-fluid cells from patients with reactive arthritis. N Engl J Med 320: 216–221, 1989.Google Scholar
  83. 81.
    Lahesmaa-Rantala R, Granfors K, Isomaki H, Toivanen A: Yersinia specific immune complexes in the synovial fluid of patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 46: 510–514, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 81a.
    Nikkari S, Merilathi-Palo R, Saario R, et al.: Yersinia-triggered reactive arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 35: 682–687, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 82.
    Shepherd RC, Smail PJ, Sinha GP: Reactive arthritis complicating cryptosporidial infection. Arch Dis Child 64: 743–744, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 83.
    Reveille JD, Conant MA, Duvic M: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Reiter’s syndrome: A disease continum? Arthritis Rheum 33: 1574–1578, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 84.
    Keat A, Dixey J, Thomas B, et al.: Chlamydia trachomatis and reactive arthritis: The missing link. Lancet 1: 72–74, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 85.
    Taylor-Robinson D, Thomas BJ, Dixey J, et al.: Evidence that Chlamydia tractomatis causes seronegative arthritis in women. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 295–299, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. a.Rahman MU, Cheema MA, Schumacher HR, Hudson AP: Molecular evidence for the presence of clamydia in the synovium of patients with Reiter’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 35: 521–529, 1992.Google Scholar
  90. 86.
    Schumacher HR Jr, Magge S, Cherian PV, et al.: Light and electron microscopic studies on the synovial membrane in Reiter’s syndrome. Immunocytochemical identification of chlamydial antigen in patients with early disease. Arthritis Rheum 31: 937–946, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 87.
    Mielants H, Veys EM, Joos R, et al.: Late onset pauciarticularjuvenile chronic arthritis: relation to gut inflammation. J Rheumatol 14: 459–465, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 88.
    De Vos M, Cuvelier C, Mielants H, et al.: Ileocolonoscopy in seronegative spondylarthropathy. Gastroenterology 96: 339–344, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 88a.
    Bardin T, Enel C, Cornelius F, et al.: Antibiotic treatment of veneral disease and Reiter’s syndrome in a Greenland population. Arthritis Rheum 35: 190194, 1992.Google Scholar
  94. 89.
    Reilly JP, Gross RH, Emans JB, et al.: Disorders of the sacro-iliac joint in children. J Bone Joint Surg 70-A: 31–40, 1988.Google Scholar
  95. 90.
    Gedalia A, Watemberg N, Rotschild M, et al.: Inflammatory sacroiliitis in childhood. J Rheumatol 17: 255–257, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 91.
    Tomlinson IW, Jayson MIV: LE cells in Reiter’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 25: 239–240, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 92.
    Siegel DM, Baum J: HLA-B27 associated dactylitis in children. J Rheumatol 15: 976–977, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 93.
    Calin A, Elswood J: The natural history of juvenile-onset ankylosing apondylitis: a 24-year retrospective case-control study. Br J Rheumatol 27: 91–93, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 94.
    Dwosh IL, Resnick D, Becker MA: Hip Involvement in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 19: 683–692, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 95.
    Carette S, Graham D, Little H, et al.: The natural disease course of ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 26: 186–190, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 96.
    Schepsis AA, Leasch RE, Gorzyca J: Plantar Fasciitis. Etiology, treatment, surgical results, and review of the literature. Clin Orthop and Related Research 266: 185–196, 1991.Google Scholar
  102. 97.
    Lee DA, Barker SM, Su WPD, et al.: The clinical diagnosis of Reiter’s syndrome. Ophthalmology 93: 350–356, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 98.
    Eichenbaum JW, Friedman AH, Mamelok AE: A clinical and histopathological review of intermediate uveitis (“pars planitis”). Bull NY Acad Med 64: 164–174, 1988.Google Scholar
  104. 99.
    Rosenbaum JT: Characterization of uveitis associated with spondyloarthritis. J Rheumatol 16: 792–796, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 100.
    Dougados M, Berenbaum F, Maetzel A, et al.: The use of sulfasalazine for the prevention of attacks of acute anterior uveitis associated with spondyloarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum 34: S195, 1991.Google Scholar
  106. 100a.
    Misukiewicz P, Carlson RW, Rowan L, et al.: Acute aortic insufficiency in a patient with presumed Reiter’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 686–687, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 101.
    Haverman JF, Van Albada-Kuipers GA, Dohmen HJM, Dijmans BAC: Atrioventricular conduction disturbance as an early feature of Reiter’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 1017–1020, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 102.
    Good AE: Reiter’s disease: A review with special attention to cardiovascular and neurologic sequelae. Semin Arthritis Rheum 3: 253–286, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 103.
    Naparstek Y, Abrahamov A, Cohen T, Brautbar C: Familial hereditary thrombocytopenia and HLA. Am J Hematol 17: 113–116, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 104.
    Niepal GA, Kostka D, Kopecky S, et al.: Enthesopathy. Acta Rheum et Balneologica Pistiniana, No. 1., 1966.Google Scholar
  111. 105.
    Ball J: Enthesopathy of rheumatoid and ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 30: 213–223, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 106.
    Resnick D, Niwayama G: Entheses and enthesopathy. Radiology 146: 1–9, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 107.
    Simkin PA, Downey DJ, Kilcoyne RF: Apophyseal arthritis limits lumbar motion in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 31: 798–802, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 108.
    Aufdermaur M: Pathogenesis of square bodies in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 48: 628–631, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. a.Pile K, Kwong T, Fryer J, Laurent R: Polyarteritis associated with yersinia enterocolitica infection. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 678–680, 1992.Google Scholar
  116. 109.
    Bulkley BH, Roberts WC: Ankylosing spondylitis and aortic regurgitation. Circulation 48: 1014–1027, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 110.
    Alexander B, Feiner H: Ankylosing spondylitis with cardiac dysrhythmia. Pathologic changes in cardiac conduction system. NY State J Med 79: 1585 1588, 1979.Google Scholar
  118. 111.
    Shah A: Echocardiographic features of mitral regurgitation due to ankylosing spondylitis. Am J Med 82: 353–356, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 112.
    Podell TE, Wallace DJ, Fishbein MC, et al.: Severe giant cell valvulitis in a patient with Reiter’s sydrome. Arthritis Rheum 25: 232–234, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 113.
    Linder E, Pasternack A: Immunofluorescence studies on kidney biopsies in ankylosing spondylitis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [A] 78B: 517–525, 1970.Google Scholar
  121. 114.
    Steinsson K, Hirszel P, Wiensten A: Mesangial IgM nephropathy in a patient with HLA-B27 spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum 25: 1056, 1982.Google Scholar
  122. 115.
    Jennette JC, Ferguson AL, Moore MA, Freeman DG: IgA nephropathy associated with seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Arthritis Rheum 25: 144–149, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 116.
    Neng Li K, Li PKT, Hawkins B, Mac-Moune Lai F: IgA nephropathy associated with ankylosing spondylitis: occurrence in women as well as in men. Ann Rheum Dis 48: 435–437, 1989.Google Scholar
  124. 117.
    Collado A, Sanmarti R, Bielsa I, et al.: Immunoglobulin A in the skin of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 1004–1007, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 118.
    Shu KH, Lian JD, Yand YF, et al.: Glomerulonephritis in ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Nephrol 25: 169–174, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 119.
    Miller LD, Brown EC Jr, Arnett FC: Amyloidosis in Reiter’s syndrome. J Rheum 6: 225–231, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 120.
    Weinberger HW, Ropes MW, Kulka JP, et al.: Reiter’s syndrome, clinical and pathologic observations. A long-term study of 16 cases. Medicine 41: 35–91, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 121.
    Burgos-Vargas R, Clark P: Axial involvement in the seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy syndrome and its progression to ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 16: 192–197, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 122.
    Calabro JJ, Grag SL, Khoury MI, et al.: Reiter’s syndrome. Am Fam Physician 9: 80–94, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 123.
    Nissila M, Isomaki H, Kaarela K, et al.: Prognosis of inflammatory joint diseases. A three-year follow-up study. Scand J Rheumatol 12: 33–38, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 124.
    Sambrook P, McGuigan L, Champion D, et al.: Clinical features and followup study of HLA-B27 positive patients presenting with peripheral arthritis. J Rheumatol 12: 526–528, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 125.
    Camilleri AE, Swan IRC, Murphy E, Sturrock RD: Chronic otitis media: a new manifestation in ankylosing spondylitis? Ann Rheum Dis 51: 655–657, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 126.
    Helfgott SM, Treseler PA: Cricoarytenoid synovitis in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 33: 604–605, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 127.
    Kernodle GW Jr, Allen NB, Kredich D: Atlantoaxial subluxation in juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 30: 837–838, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 128.
    Elbright JR, Ryan LM: Acute erosive reactive arthritis associated with campylobacterjejuni-induced colitis. Am J Med 76: 321–323, 1984.Google Scholar
  136. 129.
    Brower AC: The sacroiliac joint. In: Arthritis in Black and White. p. 10, Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1988.Google Scholar
  137. 130.
    Ahlstrom H, Feltelius N, Nyman R, Hallgren R: Magnetic resonance imaging of sacroiliac joint inflammation. Arthritis Rheum 33: 1763–1769, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 131.
    Gerster J-C, Piccinin P: Enthesopathy of the heels in juvenile onset seronegative B-27 positive spondyloarthropathy. J Rheumatol 12: 310–314, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 132.
    Resnick D, Feingold ML, Curd J, et al.: Calcaneal abnormalities in articular disorders. Radiology 125: 355–366, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 132a.
    O’Neill TW, King G, Gramham IM, et al.: Echocardiographic abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 652–654, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 133.
    Radford EP, Doll R, Smith PG: Mortality among patients with ankylosing spondylitis not given x-ray therapy. N Engl J Med 297: 572–576, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 134.
    Stewart SR, Robbins DL, Castles JJ: Acute fulminant aortic and mitral insufficiency in ankylosing spondylitis. N Engl J Med 299: 1448–1449, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 135.
    Reid GD, Patterson MWH, Patterson AC, et al.: Aortic insufficiency in association with juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. J Pediatr 95: 78–80, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 136.
    Gore JE, Vizcarrondo FE, Rieffel CN: Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis and aortic regurgitation: A case presentation. Pediatrics 68: 423–426, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 137.
    Pelkonen P, Byring R, Pesonen E, et al.: Rapidly progressive aortic incompetence in juvenile ankylosing spondylitis: a case report. Arthritis Rheum 27: 698–700, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 138.
    Bergfeldt L, Insulander R, Lindblom D, et al.: HLA-B27: An important genetic risk factor for lone aortic regurgitation and severe conduction system abnormalities. Am J Med 85: 12–18, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 139.
    Kaprove RE, Little AH, Graham DC, et al.: Ankylosing spondylitis: Survival in men with and without radiotherapy. Arthritis Rheum 23: 57–61, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 140.
    Zeidler H, Wollenhaupt J, Bialowons A: Chlamydia-induced arthritis: Antibiotic treatment and follow-up study. Arthritis Rheum 34: S61, 1991.Google Scholar
  149. 141.
    Bosi Ferraz M, Tugwell P, Goldsmith CH, Atra E: Meta-analysis of Sulfasalazine in Ankylosing Spondylitis. J Rheumatol 17: 1482–1486, 1990.Google Scholar
  150. 142.
    Lehtinen MN, Leirisalo-Repo M, Luukkainen R, et al.: Sulfasalazine in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. A twenty-six-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 31: 1111–1116, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 143.
    Mielants H, Veys EM: HLA-B27 related arthritis and bowel inflammation. Part 1. Sulfasalazine (Salazopyrin) in HLA-B27 related reactive arthritis. J Rheumatol 12: 287–293, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 144.
    Mitchell MJ, Sartoris DJ, Moody D, Resnick D: Cauda equina syndrome complicating ankylosing spondylitis. Radiology 175: 521–525, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 145.
    Mintz G, Enriquez, RD, Mercado U, et al.: Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy in severe ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 24: 734–736, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 146.
    Jay MS, Seymore C, Jay WM, Durant RH: Reiter’s syndrome in an adolescent female with systemic sequelae. J Adolescent Health Care 8: 280–285, 1987.Google Scholar
  155. 147.
    Calin A: A placebo controlled, crossover study of azathioprine in Reiter’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 45: 653–655, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerry C. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Pediatric Rheumatology and the Regional Arthritis Program (RAP-4-Kids)Columbia-Presbyterian Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations