Pathology of the Fallopian Tube

  • James E. Wheeler
  • Luigi MastroianniJr.

Abstract

The biologic function of the fallopian tube, transport of sperm and ovum, may be seriously compromised or entirely destroyed by inflammatory processes or tubal pregnancy. Tumors may interfere with normal function or, if malignant, may lead to death. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of many tubal diseases are imperfectly understood at present, progress is certain to take place, if only against a background of thorough knowledge of normal anatomy, histology, and physiology.

Keywords

Estrogen Adenocarcinoma Adenoma Tuberculosis Sarcoma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abrams, J., Kazal, H. L., and Hobbs, R. E. Primary sarcoma of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 180, 1958.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams, B. E. Intussusception of a fallopian tube. Am. J. Surg. 118: 591, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bachmann, F. F. Ein chondrolipom des Eileiters. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 21: 975, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnes, H. M., and Richardson, P. J. Benign metastasizing fibroleiomyoma. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Br. Commonw. 80: 569, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benjamin, C. L., and Beaver, D. C. Pathogenesis of salpingitis isthmica nodosa. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 21: 212, 1951.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benson, P. A. Cytologic diagnosis in primary carcinoma of fallopian tube. Acta Cytol. 18: 429, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bland, K. G., and Gelfand, M. The effects of schistosomiasis on the fallopian tubes in the african female. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 77: 1024, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boularan, Cahuzac, Salvador, and Genesseau. Macrogénitosomie et gynandrie chez un sujet porteur de deux tumeurs cortico-surrénaliennes incluses dans les ligaments larges. Annales d’Endocrinol. 6: 57, 1945.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bransilver, B. R., Ferenczy, A., and Richart, R. M. Female genital tract remnants. An ultrastructural comparison of hydatid of Morgagni and mesonephric ducts and tubules. Arch. Pathol. 96: 255, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Braun, P., and Besdine, R. Tuboovarian abscess with recovery of T. mycoplasma. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 117: 861, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brooks, J. J., and Wheeler, J. E. Granulomatous salpingitis secondary to Crohn’s disease. Obstet. Gynecol (in press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burmeister, R. E., Fechner, R. E., and Franklin, R. R. Endosalpingiosis of the peritoneum. Obstet. Gynecol. 34: 310, 1969.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Campbell, J. S., Nigam, S., Hurtig, A., Sahasrabudhe, M. R., and Marino, I. Mineral oil granulomas of the uterus and parametrium and granulomatous salpingitis with Schaumann bodies and oxalate deposits. Fertil. Steril. 15: 278, 1964.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital (Case 9–1971). N. Engl. J. Med. 284: 491, 1971.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chevallier, G., and Parent, B. L’hydrosalpinx. Etude de 253 cas. Presse Med. 74: 2035, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chow, A. W., Malkasian, K. L., Marshall, J. R., and Guze, L. B. The bacteriology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122: 876, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cornog, J. L., Curie, J. L., and Rubin, A. Heat artifact simulating adenocarcinoma of fallopian tube. J.A.M.A. 214: 1118, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Coutinho, E. M., Maia, H. Jr., and Mattos, C. E. R. Contractility of the fallopian tube. Gynecol. Invest. 6: 146, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Crohn, B. B., and Yarnis, H. Regional Ileitis, 2nd ed., New York, Grune and Stratton, 1958.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Croxatto, H. B., Diaz, S., Fuentealba, B., Croxatto, H. D., Carrillo, D., and Fabres, C. Studies on the duration of egg transport in the human oviduct. I. The time interval between ovulation and egg recovery from the uterus in normal women. Fertil. Steril. 23: 447, 1972.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    David, A., Garcia, C.-R., and Czernobilsky, B. Human hydrosalpinx. Histologic study and chemical composition of fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105: 400, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    David, A., Serr, D. N., and Czernobilsky, B. Chemical composition of human oviduct fluid. Fertil. Steril. 24: 435, 1973.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dede, J. A., and Janovski, N. A. Lipoma of the uterine tube. Obstet. Gynecol. 22: 461, 1963.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Diamant, Y. Z., Aboulafia, Y., and Raz, S. Torsion of hydrosalpinx. Int. Surg. 57: 303, 1972.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dische, F. E., Burt, J. M., Davidson, N. J. H., and Puntambekar, S. Tuboovarian actinomycosis associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 81: 724, 1974.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dudkiewicz, J. Quantitative and qualitative changes of epithelial cells of fallopian tubes in women according to the phase of menstrual cycle. A cytologic study. Acta Cytol. 14: 531, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ebrahimi, T., and Okagaki, T. Hemangioma of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115: 864, 1973.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Elliott, G. B., Brody, H., and Elliott, K. A. Implications of “lipoid” salpingitis. Fertil. Steril. 16: 541, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ellsworth, H. S., Harris, J. W., McQuarrie, H. G., Stone, R. A., and Anderson, A. E. Prolapse of the fallopian tube following vaginal hysterectomy. J.A.M.A. 224: 891, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Falls, J. L. Accessory adrenal cortex in the broad ligament. Cancer 8: 143, 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Federman, Q., and Toker, C. Primary transitional cell tumor of the uterine adnexa. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115: 863, 1973.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ferenczy, A., Fenoglio, J., and Richart, R. M. Observations on benign mesotheliomas of the genital tract (adenomatoid tumor). Cancer 30: 244, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ferenczy, A., and Richart, R. M. Female Reproductive System: Dynamics of Scan and Transmission Electron Microscopy, New York, J. Wiley, 1974, pp. 212–253.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fitzgerald, T. B., Mainwaring, A. R., and Ahmed, A. Pelvic peritoneal oxyuriasis simulating metastatic carcinoma. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 81: 248, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flickinger, G. L., Muechler, E. K., and Mikhail, G. Estradiol receptor in the human fallopian tube. Fertil. Steril. 25: 900, 1974.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fredricsson, B. Histochemistry of the oviduct. In Hafez, E. S. E., and Blandau, R. J., eds. The Mammalian Oviduct. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frost, O. Bilharzia of the fallopian tube. S. Afr. Med. J. 49: 1201, 1975.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gaddum-Rosse, P., and Blandau, R. J. In vitro studies on ciliary activity within the oviducts of the rabbit and pig. Am. J. Anat. 136:91, 1973.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gaddum-Rosse, P., Rumery, R. E., Blandau, R. T., and Thiersch, J. B. Studies on the mucosa of postmenopausal oviducts: Surface appearance, ciliary activity, and the effect of estrogen treatment. Fertil. Steril. 26: 951, 1975.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gardner, G. H., Greene, R. R., and Peckham, B. M. Normal and cystic structures of broad ligament. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 55: 917, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gardner, G. H., Greene, R. R., and Peckham, B. Tumors of the broad ligament. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 73: 536, 1957.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gelfand, M., Ross, M. D., Blair, D. M., and Weber, M. C. Distribution and extent of schistosomiasis in female pelvic organs with special reference to the genital tract, as determined at autopsy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 20: 846, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gravaller, J., Suranyi, S., and Berensci, G. Neue Gesicht-punkte in der Klinik der Genitaltuberkulose. Zentralbl. Gynaecol. 78: 496, 1956.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Haines, M. Tuberculous salpingitis as seen by the pathologist and the surgeon. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 472, 1958.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hanton, E. M., Malkasian, G. D. Jr., Dahlin, D. C., and Pratt, J. H. Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 94: 832, 1966.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hellman, L. M. Morphology of the human fallopian tube in the early puerperium. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 57: 154, 1949.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Henriksen, E. Struma salpingii. Obstet. Gynecol. 5: 833, 1955.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hertig, A. T., and Gore, H. Tumors of the female sex organs. Part 3. Tumors of the ovary and fallopian tube. in Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Series 1, Fasc. 33. Washington, D.C., Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1961, pp. 84–85.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hertig, A. T., and Mansell, H. Tumors of the female sex organs. Part 1. Hydatiform mole and choriocarcinoma, in Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Series 1, Fasc. 33. Washington, D.C., Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 1956, pp. 62–63.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Karakascheff, K. I. Weitere Beiträge zur pathologischen Anatomie der Nebennieren. Beitr Pathol. 39: 373, 1906.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kariminejad, M. H., and Scully, R. E. Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin. Cancer 31: 671, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kay, S. Sarcoidosis of the fallopian tubes. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 63: 871, 1956.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee, R. A., and Welch, J. S. Torsion of the uterine adnexa. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 97: 974, 1967.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lewis, J. D. Hilus cell hyperplasia of ovaries and tubes. Obstet. Gynecol. 24: 728, 1964.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lippes, J., Ender, R. G., Pragay, O. A., and Bartholomew, W. R. The collection and analysis of human fallopian tube fluid. Contraception 5: 85, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lisa, J. R., Gioia, J. D., and Rubin, I. C. Observations on the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 99: 159, 1954.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Madden, S. Chorionepithelioma of the fallopian tube. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Emp. 57: 68, 1950.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Malinak, L. J., Miller, G. V., and Armstrong, J. T. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 95: 1067, 1966.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mallory, T. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. N. Engl. J. Med. 213: 1249, 1935.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Märdh, P.-A., and Weström, L. Antibodies to Mycoplasma hominis in patients with genital infections and in healthy controls. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 46: 390, 1970.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Märdh, P.-A., and Weström, L. Tubal and cervical cultures in acute salpingitis with special reference to Mycoplasme hominis and T-strain mycoplasmas. Brit. J. Vener. Dis. 46: 179, 1970.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mason, T. E., and Quagliarello, J. R. Ectopic pregnancies in the fallopian tube. Obstet. Gynecol. 48: 70s, 1976.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mastroianni, L. Jr., and Komins, J. Capacitation, ovum maturation, fertilization and preimplantation development in the oviduct. Gynecol. Invest. 6: 226, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mazzarella, P., Okagaki, T., and Richart, R. M. Teratoma of the uterine tube. Obstet. Gynecol. 39: 381, 1972.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Moore, S. W., and Enterline, H. T. Significance of proliferative epithelial lesions of the uterine tube. Obstet. Gynecol. 45: 385, 1975.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Novak, E., and Everett, H. S. Cyclical and other variations in the tubal epithelium. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 16: 499, 1928.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Odor, D. L. The question of “basal” cells in oviductal and endocervical epithelium. Fertil. steril. 25: 1047, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Okagaki, T., and Richart, R. M. Neurilemmoma of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 106: 929, 1970.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Outerbridge, G. W. Polypoid chondrofibroma of the fallopian tube associated with tubal pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. N.Y. 70: 173, 1914.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Palomaki, J. F., and Blair, O. M. Hilus cell rest of the fallopian tube. Obstet. Gynecol. 37: 60, 1971.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Parmley, T. H., Woodruff, J. D., Winn, K., Johnson, J. W., and Douglas, P. H. Histogenesis of leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (disseminated fibrosing deciduosis). Obstet. Gynecol. 46: 511, 1975.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Patek, E., and Nilsson, L. Scanning electron microscopic observations on the ciliogenesis of the infundibulum of the human fetal and adult fallopian tube epithelium. Fertil. Steril. 24: 819, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Patek, E., Nilsson, L., and Johannisson, E. Scanning electron microscopic study of the human fallopian tube. Report I. The proliferative and secretory stages. Fertil. Steril. 23: 459, 1972.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Patton, G. W. Jr., and Goldstein, D. P. Gestational choriocarcinoma of the tube and ovary. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 137: 608, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pauerstein, C. J. The Fallopian Tube: A Reappraisal. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1974.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pauerstein, C. J., and Woodruff, J. D. The role of the “indifferent” cell of the tubal epithelium. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 98: 121, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pauerstein, C. J., and Woodruff, J. D. Cellular patterns in proliferative and anaplastic disease of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 96: 486, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Persaud, V. Etiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 36: 257, 1970.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Qizilbash, A. H., and DePetrillo, A. D. Endometrial and tubal involvement by squamous carcinoma of the cervix. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 64: 668, 1975.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rebello, R., Green, F. H. Y., and Fox, H. A study of the secretory immune system of the female genital tract. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 82: 812, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Robboy, S. J., and Scully, R. E. Ovarian teratoma with glial implants on the peritoneum. Hum. Pathol. 1: 643, 1970.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Roberts, C. L., and Marshall, H. K. Fibromyoma of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 364, 1961.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rubin, A., and Czernobilsky, B. Tubal ligation. A bacteriologic, histologic and clinical study. Obstet. Gynecol. 36: 199, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sampson, J. A. Postsalpingectomy endometriosis (endosalpingiosis). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 10: 649, 1930.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sanes, S., and Warner, R. Primary lymphangioma of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 37: 316, 1939.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sapan, I. P., and Solberg, N. S. Prolapse of the uterine tube after abdominal hysterectomy. Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 26, 1973.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schaefer, G. Tuberculosis of the female genital tract. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 13: 965, 1970.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Scheffey, L. C., Lang, W. R., and Nugent, F. B. Clinical and pathologic aspects of primary sarcoma of the uterine tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 52: 904, 1941.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schenken, J. R., and Burns, E. L. A study and classification of nodular lesions of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 45: 624, 1943.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schiller, H. M., and Silverberg, S. G. Staging and prognosis in primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Cancer 28: 389, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sedlis, A. Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Obstet. Gynec. Surv. 16: 209, 1961.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Settlege, D. S. F., Motoshima, M., and Tredway, D. R. Sperm transport from the external cervical os to the fallopian tube in women. A time and quantitation study. Fertil. Steril. 24: 655, 1973.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Spore, W. W., Moskal, P. A., Nakamura, R. M., and Mishell, O. R. Bacteriology of postpartum oviducts and endometrium. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 107: 572, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stambaugh, R., Seitz, H. M., and Mastroianni, L. Jr. Acrosomal proteinase inhibitors in rhesus monkey (Macaco mulatta) oviduct fluid. Fertil. Steril. 25: 352, 1974.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stevens, L. C., and Varnum, D. S. The development of teratomas from pathogenetically activated ovarian mouse eggs. Dev. Biol. 37: 369, 1974.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sutherland, C. G. Tubal mole associated with intrauterine pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 1164, 1953.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Surur, F. Actinomycosis of the female genital tract. N.Y. State J. Med. 75: 408, 1974.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sweet, R. L. Anaerobic infections of the female genital tract. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122: 891, 1975.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Swenson, R. M., Michaelson, T. C., Daly, M. J., and Spaulding, E H Anaerobic bacterial infections of the female genital tract. Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 538, 1973.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Symmers, W. St. C. Pathology of oxyuriasis. Arch. Pathol. 50: 475, 1950.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Taubert, H.-D., Wissner, S. E., and Haskins, A. L. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Obstet. Gynecol. 25: 561, 1965.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Taxy, J. B., and Battifora, H. Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin. Cancer 37: 2349, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Taxy, J. B., Battifora, H., and Oyasu, R. Adenomatoid tumors: A light microscopic, histochemical, and ultrastructural study. Cancer 34: 306, 1974.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Taylor, E. S., McMillan, J. H., Greer, B. E., Droegemueller, W., and Thompson, H. E. The intrauterine device and tuboovarian abscess. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 123: 338, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Teilum, G. Special Tumors of the Ovary and Testis. Copenhagen, Munksgard, 1971, p. 298.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Thadepalli, H., Gorbach, S. L., and Keith L. Anaerobic infections of the female genital tract: Bacteriologic and therapeutic aspects. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 117: 1034, 1973.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tilden, I. L., and Winstedt, R. Decidual reactions in fallopian tubes. Am. J. Pathol. 19: 1043, 1943.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Verhege, H. G., and Brenner, R. M. Estradiol-induced differentiation of the oviductal epithelium in ovariectomized cats. Biol. Reprod. 13: 104, 1975.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ward, M. E., Watt, P. J., and Robertson, J. N. The human fallopian tube: A laboratory model for gonococcal infection. J. Infect. Dis. 129: 650, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Weber, D. L., and Fazzini, E. Ganglioneuroma of the fallopian tube. Acta Neuropathol. 16: 173, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Weström, L., Bengtsson, L. P., and Mârdh, P.-A. The risk of pelvic inflammatory disease in women using intrauterine contraceptive devices as compared to non-users. Lancet 2: 221, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Woodruff, J. D., and Julian, C. G. Multiple malignancy in the upper genital canal. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 103: 810, 1969.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Woodruff, J. D., and Pauerstein, C. J. The Fallopian Tube. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1969.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wlodarski, F. M., and Trainer, T. D. Granulomatous oophoritis and salpingitis associated with Crohn’s disease of the appendix. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122: 527, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wrork, D. H., and Broders, A. C. Adenomyosis of the fallopian tube. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 44: 412, 1942.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wu, J. P., Tanner, W. S., and Fardal, P. M. Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the uterine tube. Obstet. Gynecol. 41: 707, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • James E. Wheeler
  • Luigi MastroianniJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations