Advertisement

Definitions and Overview of Tissue Optics

  • A. J. Welch
  • Martin J. C. van Gemert
  • Willem M. Star
  • Brian C. Wilson
Part of the Lasers, Photonics, and Electro-Optics book series (LPEO)

Abstract

Optics for laser irradiation of tissue is best described by examining the response of a target within tissue to light. Suppose tissue (e.g., skin) has a chromophore (e.g., a melanocyte) somewhere inside the tissue at coordinate r with respect to some frame of reference (Fig. 2.1). What is the rate of heat that is generated in the chromophore when the tissue is irradiated at some wavelength with constant power P over the laser beam radius W L ? The key question that needs to be answered is: how many photons per second will reach the chromophore and be absorbed? Tissue optics should provide the answer to this question.

Keywords

Solid Angle Light Propagation Specular Reflection Fluence Rate Scatter Phase Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Quantities and Units of Light and Related Electromagnetic Radiations 2nd ed., International Standard ISO 31/6, 1980(E), International Organization for Standardization, Switzerland 1980Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ishimaru A. Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vol. 1: Single Scattering and Transport Theory, Academic Press, New York. 1978.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chapter 1, Handbook of Optics, Infrared Target and Background Radiometric Measurements: Concepts, Units and Techniques. Report of the Working Group on Infrared Background (WGIRB) No. 2389–64-T, IRIA, Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1962: also Infrared Phys. 3: 139–169 1963Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hecht E, Zajac A. Optics, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Born M, Wolf E. Principles of Optics, Macmillan, New York, 1964.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chandrasekhar, S. Radiative Transfer, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1960.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prahl SA. “Light transport in tissue,” PhD Dissertation, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 1988.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hulst HC van de. Light-Scattering by Small Particles, Dover. New York. 1957.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fante RL. “Relationship between radiative-transport theory and Maxwell’s equations in dielectric media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71: 460–468, 1981.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flock ST, Wilson BC, Patterson MS. “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14: 835–841 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Twersky, V. “Absorptions and multiple scattering by biological suspensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., 60:1084–1093, 1970.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Welch
    • 1
  • Martin J. C. van Gemert
    • 2
  • Willem M. Star
    • 3
  • Brian C. Wilson
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Laser CenterAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Clinical PhysicsDr. Daniel Den Hoed Cancer CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Ontario Cancer Institute and Department of Medical BiophysicsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations