Polymorphism of Digestive Enzymes Coding Sequences in the Crustacea Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea Decapoda)
Adaptation of digestive enzymes to the main constituant of food is well established in vertebrates (Howard and Yadkin, 1963; Puigserver et al., 1985; Scheele, 1993). Grossman et al. (1943) early demonstrated the accretion of trypsin with a high protein diet. Later, Johnson et al. (1977) showed that casein was the best inducer of trypsin and demonstrated the different effects of the quality of food on induction. The increase of trypsin is modulated via transcription by casein-induced diets whilst other diets induce adaptation via post-translational events (Lhoste et al., 1994). Adaptation to the main component of the diet is also described for chymotrypsin and amylase in the rat (Reboud et al., 1961; Giorgi et al., 1984). The molecular regulation of these adaptations appears to be highly species dependent and each enzyme is regulated, for a given species, by different pathways, i.e. transcription for chymotrypsin or translation for amylase in the rat (Lhoste et al., 1993). In Palaemon serratus, convergent results are obtained between the enzyme activities, the level of dietary substrates in food and the growth (Van Wormhoudt et al., 1980). The maximal specific protease activity was occuring when the level of dietary protein reached 45%. The shrimp Penaeus vannamei was studied as it is considered to be one of the most important penaid species for commercial production. The study of digestive enzymes is an essential step toward our understanding of the mechanism of digestion and a better adjustment of nutritional needs to decrease pollution impact of aquaculture production farms. To specify the existence and the level of control of digestive enzyme expression by the constituants of the food, molecular biology technics were applied to the characterization of the nucleotidic precursors of these enzymes for animals fed with two different diets containing 25 and 40% of casein.
KeywordsDigestive Gland High Protein Diet Casein Diet Complex Gene Structure Nucleotidic Precursor
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