Neuropeptides as Positive or Negative Neuronal Growth Regulatory Factors: Effects of Acth and Leu-Enkephalin on Cultured Serotonergic Neurons

  • Martha I. Davila-Garcia
  • Efrain C. Azmitia
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 265)


In general, neuronal growth regulatory factors can be divided into three categories with respect to their effects in vitro. The first category consists of the survival factors, which increase the number of neurons surviving after a certain time in vitro (as typified by NGF). The second category is composed of the neurite promoting factors which increase the proportion of neurons growing neurites (such as laminin, fibronectin, collagen and polycations). The third category includes developmental growth factors (also called instructing or specifying factors) which influence the type of growth (cell shape, transmitter content, neurotransmitter release, etc.) for specific neuronal cell types. Evidence would suggest that neurotransmitters, including neuropeptides, can be placed within any of these categories, being either positive or negative factors on neuronal growth.


Dorsal Root Ganglion Opioid Peptide Serotonergic Neuron Opiate Receptor Growth Regulatory Factor 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha I. Davila-Garcia
    • 1
  • Efrain C. Azmitia
    • 1
  1. 1.Washington Square Center for NeuroscienceNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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