Universal Formulas for Treatment Effects from Noncompliance Data
This paper establishes formulas that can be used to bound the actual treatment effect in any experimental study in which treatment assignment is random but subject compliance is imperfect. These formulas provide the tightest bounds on the average treatment effect that can be inferred given the distribution of assignments, treatments, and responses. Our results reveal that even with high rates of noncompliance, experimental data can yield significant and sometimes accurate information on the effect of a treatment on the population.
KeywordsCausal Effect Treatment Assignment Average Treatment Effect Tight Bound Universal Formula
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