Personality and Intelligence in the Psychodiagnostic Process

The Emergence of Diagnostic Schedules
  • R. W. Kamphaus
  • A. W. Morgan
  • M. R. Cox
  • R. M. Powell
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)


Formal intelligence and personality measures have contributed immeasurably to the psychodiagnostic process. Intelligence measures, for instance, virtually defined the diagnosis of mental retardation for much of this century (Kamphaus, 1993). Similarly, personality measures have been widely used for psychological diagnosis since first being proven useful after World War I, when the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet was found to be practical for the diagnosis of what is currently called posttraumatic stress disorder (Kamphaus & Frick, in press). Today, however, the relationship between intelligence and personality testing and diagnosis is less direct, as diagnostic systems become increasingly behavior based.


Personality Disorder Diagnostic System Autistic Child Latent Trait Personality Test 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alpern, G. (1967). Measurement of “untestable” autistic chilAAAllison shows evidence of poor adaptability to dren. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 478–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Association on Mental Retardation. (1992). Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of support (rev. 9th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1968). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 2nd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (rev. 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Anastasi, A. (1988). Psychological testing ( 5th ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Bodiford, C. A., Eisenstadt, T. H., Johnson, J. H., & Bradlyn, A. S. (1988). Comparison of learned helplessness cognitions and behavior in children with high and low scores on the Children’s Depression Inventory. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17 (2), 152–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brumback, R. A., Jackoway, M. K., & Weinberg, W. A. (1980). Relation of intelligence to childhood depression in children referred to an educational diagnostic center. Perceptual Motor Skills, 50, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bums, R. C. (1987). Kinetic house-tree-person drawings (KH-T-P): An interpretive manual. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  9. Buss, A. H., & Durkee, A. (1957). An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 243–249.Google Scholar
  10. Carlson, G. A., & Cantwell, D. P. (1980) A survey of depressive symptoms, syndrome and disorder in a child psychiatric population. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 21, 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  12. Cummings, J. A., & Laquerre, M. (1990). Visual-motor assessment. In C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus (Eds.), Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children (pp. 593–610 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Curran, V., & Marengo, J. T. (1990). Psychological assessment of catatonic schizophrenia. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(3 & 4), 432–4. 44.Google Scholar
  14. Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (1990). Abnormal psychology ( 5th ed. ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Delaney, E. A., & Hopkins, T. F. (1987). Examiners handbook: An expanded guide for fourth edition users. Chicago: Riverside. Egyptian Psychiatric Association. (1979). Diagnostic manual of psychiatric disorders. Cairo: Author.Google Scholar
  16. Eysenck, J. H., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1964). Manual for the Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
  17. Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., Yokota, A., Childs, J., & Pollard, J. (1988). WISC-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores in autistic children. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(4), 428–429.Google Scholar
  18. Golden, C., Punsch, A., & Hammeke, T. (1985). Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Forms I and II. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  19. Griffin, N. J., & Siegel, L. J. (1984). Correlates of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 13(6), 475–487.Google Scholar
  20. Haertzen, C. A., Martin, W. E., Ross, E E., & Neidert, G. L. (1980). Psychopathic States Inventory (PSI): Development of a short test for measuring psychopathic states. International Journal of the Addictions, 15, 137–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris, S. L., Handleman, J. S., & Burton, J. L. (1990). The Stanford-Binet profiles of young children with autism. Special Services in the Schools, 6, 135–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hodges, K. (1990). Depression and anxiety in children: A comparison of self-report questionnaires to clinical interview. Psychological Assessment, 2, 376–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hogg, B., Jackson, H. J., Rudd, R. P., & Edwards, J. (1990). Diagnosing personality disorders in recent-onset schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178(3), 194–199.Google Scholar
  24. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. PL (101–475). (1990).Google Scholar
  25. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale. (1969). Section psychiatrie: Classification française des troubles mentaux. Bulletoin de l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, 24 (2; Suppl.).Google Scholar
  26. Kamphaus, R. W. (1993). Clinical assessment of children’s intelligence. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  27. Kamphaus, R. W., & Frick, P. J. (in press). Clinical assessment of children’s personality and behavior. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  28. Kaslow, N. J. (1981). Social and cognitive correlates of depression in children from a developmental perspective. Paper presented at meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  29. Kaslow, N. J., Tannenbaum, R. L., Abramson, L. Y., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1983). Problem-solving deficits and depressive symptoms among children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 497–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaslow, N. J., Rehm, L. P., & Siegel, A. W. (1984). Social-cognitive and cognitive correlates of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 605–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kay, S. R., Kalathara, M., & Meinzer, A. E. (1989). Diagnostic and behavioral characteristics of psychiatric patients who abuse substances. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40 (10), 1062–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kazdin, A. E., French, N. H., Unis, A. S., & Esveldt-Dawson, K. (1983). Assessment of childhood depression: Correspondence of child and parent ratings. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 157–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. King, R. J., Jones, J., Scheuer, J. W., Curtis, D., & Zarcone, V. P. (1990) Plasma cortisol correlates of impulsivity and substance abuse. Personality and Individual Differences, 11 (3), 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kline, R. B., Maltz, A., Lachar, R., Spector, S., & Fischhoff, J. (1987). Differentiation of infantile autistic, child-onset pervasive developmental disorder and mentally retarded children with the Personality Inventory for Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26 (6), 839–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klove, H., & Reitan, R. M. (1958). Effect of dysphasia and distortion on Wechsler-Bellevue results. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 80, 709–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kovacs, M. (1989). Affective disorders in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 44, 209–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kovacs, M., & Beck, A. T. (1977). An empirical clinical approach toward a definition of childhood depression. In J. G. Schulterbrandt & A. Raskin (Eds.), Depression in childhood: Diagnosis, treatment, and conceptual models (pp. 1–26 ). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  38. Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment ( 2nd ed. ), Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Lincoln, A. J., Courchesne, E., Kilman, B. A., Elmasian, R., & Allen, M. (1988). A study of intellectual abilities in high-functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 505–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lipvosky, J. A., Finch, A. J., Jr., & Belter, R. W. (1989). Assessment of depression in adolescents: Objective and projective measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53(3), 449–458.Google Scholar
  41. Maloney, M. P., & Ward, M. P. (1976). Psychological assessment: A conceptual approach. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Martin, R. (1984). The Temperament Assessment Battery: Interim manual. Athens, GA: Developmental Metrics.Google Scholar
  43. Matarazzo, J. D. (1972). Wechsler’s measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence ( 5th ed. ). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  44. Matarazzo, J. D. (1990). Psychological assessment versus psychological testing: Validation from Binet to the school, clinic, and courtroom. American Psychologist, 45, 999–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meek, P. S., Clark, H. W., & Solona, V. L. (1989). Neurocognitive impairment: The unrecognized component of dual diagnosis in substance abuse treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 21 (2), 153–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Millon, T. (1983). Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory manual. Minneapolis, MN: Interpretive Scoring Systems.Google Scholar
  47. Moss, H. B. (1989). Psychopathy, aggression, and family history in male veteran substance abuse patients: A factor analytic study. Addictive Behavior, 14, 565–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mullins, L. L., Siegel, L. J., & Hodges, K. K. (1985). Cognitive problem-solving and life event correlates of depressive symptoms in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13 (2), 305–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Multiple dilemmas of the multiply disabled. (1986). Albany: New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled.Google Scholar
  50. Murray, H. A. (1943). Thematic Apperception Test. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Naglieri, J. A., LeBuffe, P. A., & Pfeiffer, S. I. (1993). Devereux Behavior Rating Scale-School Form and the Devereux Scales of Psychopathology. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  52. Okasha, A. (1988). The Egyptian diagnostic system (DMP-I). In J. E. Mezzich & M. von Cranach (Eds.), International classification in psychiatry: Unity and diversity (pp. 55–64 ). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Pemicano, K. M. (1986). Score differences on WAIS-R scatter for schizophrenics, depressives, and personality disorders: A preliminary analysis. Psychological Reports, 59, 539–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pfohl, B., Stangl, D., & Zimmerman, M. (1983). The Structured Interview for DSM-III Personality Disorders (SIDP). Iowa City: University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.Google Scholar
  55. Pichot, P. (1990). The diagnosis and classification of mental disorders in the French-speaking countries: Background, current values and comparison with other classifications. In N. Sartorius, A. Jablensky, D. A. Regier, J. D. Burke, Jr., & R. M. A. Hirschfeld (Eds.), Sources and traditions of classification in psychiatry (pp. 7–57 ). Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  56. Pull, C. B., Pull, M. C., & Pichot, P. (1988). The French approach to psychiatric classification. In J. E. Mezzich & M. von Cranach (Eds.), International classification in psychiatry: Unity and diversity (pp. 37–47 ). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Rapaport, D., Gill, M., & Schafer, R. (1945–1946). Diagnostic psychological testing (2 vols.). Chicago: Year Book.Google Scholar
  58. Reitan, R. M. (1955). Certain differential effects of left and right cerebral lesions in human adults. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 48, 474–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reitan, R. M. (1969). Manual for administration of neuro-psychological test batteries for adults and children. Indianapolis: Author.Google Scholar
  60. Reitan, R. M., & Fitzhugh, K. B. (1971). Behavioral deficits in groups with cerebral vascular lesions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 215–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (Eds.). Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  62. Rotter, J. B., & Rafferty, J. E. (1950). Manual: The Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  63. Roy, S., Herrera, J., Parent, M., & Costa, J. (1987). Violent and nonviolent schizophrenic patients: Clinical and developmental characteristics. Psychological Reports, 61, 855–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rutter, M., & Schopler, E. (1988). Autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Concepts and diagnostic issues. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Diagnosis and assessment of autism (pp. 15–36 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  65. Saylor, C. F., Finch, A. J., Jr., Spirito, A., & Bennet, B. (1984). The Children’s Depression Inventory: A systematic evaluation of psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 955–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schwartz, M., Friedman, R., Lindsey, R., & Narrol, H. (1982). The relationship between conceptual tempo and depression in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 488–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Semrud-Clikeman, M. (1990). Assessment of depression. In C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, Handbook of psychological assessment of children (pp. 279–297 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  68. Shepard, L. A. (1989). Identification of mild handicaps. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement ( 3rd ed. ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  69. Singh, N. N., & Katz, R. C. (1989). Differential diagnosis in chronic schizophrenia and adult autism. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Chronic schizophrenia and adult autism: Issues in diagnosis, assessment, and psychological treatment (pp. 147–180 ). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  70. Snow, M. E., Hertzig, M. E., & Shapiro, T. (1987). Expression of emotion in young autistic children. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(6), 836–838.Google Scholar
  71. Sweeney, J. A., Meisal, L., Walsh, V. L., & Castrovinci, D. (1989). Assessment of cognitive functioning in poly-substance abusers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45 (2), 346–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Thorndike, R. L. (1982). Applied psychometrics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  73. Thorndike, R. L., Hagen, E. R., & Sattler, J. M. (1986). The Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale ( 4th ed. ). Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  74. Van Dyke, C., Mueller, J., & Kiernan, R. (1987). The case for psychiatrists as authorities on cognition. Psychosomatics, 28, 87–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vardy, M. M., & Kay, S. R. (1983). LSD psychosis or LSD-induced schizophrenia? A multimethod inquiry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 877–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 465–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Watson, D., & Kendall, P. C. (1989). Understanding anxiety and depression: Their relation to negative and positive affective states. In P. C. Kendall & D. Watson (Eds.), Anxiety and depression: Distinctive overlapping features (pp. 3–26 ). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  78. Wechsler, D. (1974). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenRevised Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  79. Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised manual. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  80. Widiger, T. A., Frances, A. J., Pincus, H. A., Davis, W. W., & First, M. B. (1991). Toward an empirical classification for the DSM-IV. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 280–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. World Health Organization. (1967). Manual of the international classification of diseases (rev. 8th ed. ). Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  82. Yirmiya, N., & Sigman, M. (1991). High functioning individuals with autism: Diagnosis, empirical findings, and theoretical issues. School Psychology Review, 11, 669–683.Google Scholar
  83. Yu-Cun, S., & Changhui, C. (1988). Principles of the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD). In J. E. Mezzich & M. von Cranach (Eds.), International classification in psychiatry: Unity and diversity (pp. 73–80 ). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Zaudig, M., von Cranach, M., Wittchen, H. U., Semler, G., & Steinbock, H. (1988). Schizoaffective psychosis. In J. E. Mezzich & M. von Cranach (Eds.), International classification in psychiatry: Unity and diversity (pp. 122–134 ). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Kamphaus
    • 1
  • A. W. Morgan
    • 1
  • M. R. Cox
    • 1
  • R. M. Powell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations