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Measurement and Statistical Models in the Study of Personality and Intelligence

  • Gregory J. Boyle
  • Lazar Stankov
  • Raymond B. Cattell
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

Theorizing about personality and intelligence structure initially was limited to prescientific literary and philosophical “insights” (see Howard, 1993). Among these early psychological approaches. Freudian psychoanalytic theory almost certainly has had the major influence on thinking about human personality during the early 20th century, although psychoanalysis itself has now come under critical scrutiny (see H. J. Eysenck, 1985a; Masson, 1990). Another prominent theorist was Murray, who postulated such “needs” as abasement, achievement, aggression, change, cognitive structure, endurance, nurturance, order, sentience, and understanding. Likewise, Jung’s introversion-extraversion theory has been influential. The comparatively subjective models of theorists such as Freud, Adler, Jung, Fromm, Erikson, Homey, Maslow, and Sullivan, however, must now be rejected as scientifically unacceptable. Around 1920, the emphasis changed from clinical premetric speculations to more quantitative and overtly experimental approaches, along with recognition of the ability and personality sphere concepts. The inadequacy of socioenvironmental explanations of personality, though, has been amply demonstrated by Zuckerman (1991). Personality is not solely the outcome of family and social conditioning. H. J. Eysenck (1991) has pointed out that these theories are essentially untestable; they are based on speculative or falsified deductions, and they ignore virtually all the experimental and empirical research conducted this century.

Keywords

Personality Trait Personality Disorder Latent Trait Root Mean Square Residual Multivariate Behavioral Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory J. Boyle
    • 1
  • Lazar Stankov
    • 2
  • Raymond B. Cattell
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Humanities and Social SciencesBond UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA

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