Event-Related Potentials, Personality, and Intelligence

Concepts, Issues, and Evidence
  • Robert M. Stelmack
  • Michael Houlihan
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)


Event-related potentials (ERPs) are records of the electrocortical activity that is evoked by physical stimuli and modulated by psychological processes such as attention, memory, and cognition. Since the mid-1960s, ERP methods have been used to explore the nature of individual differences in both personality and intelligence; often, the same ERP measures and experimental procedures were applied in these inquiries. In this chapter we examine the convergences and distinctions in the application of ERP methods to the study of personality and intelligence. The rationale and strategies guiding the research are briefly noted. In order to highlight the understanding provided by ERP methods, the functional significance of the ERP components relevant to personality and intelligence research is outlined. The ERP components and paradigms that have been most successful in demonstrating consistent or promising findings are illustrated, and the insights that this work offers are discussed.


Target Stimulus P300 Amplitude P300 Latency Oddball Paradigm Brainstem Auditory Evoke Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barnet, A. B., and Lodge, A. (1967). Click evoked EEG responses in normal and developmentally retarded infants. Nature, 214, 252–255.Google Scholar
  2. Barrett, P. T., and Eysenck, H. J. (1992). Brain electrical potentials and intelligence. In A. Gale, and M. W. Eysenck (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences: Biological perspectives (pp. 255–285 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Bastuji, H., Larrea, L. G., Bertrand, O., and Mauguiere, E. (1988). BAEP latency changes during nocturnal sleep are not correlated with sleep stages but with body temperature variations. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 70, 9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates, T., and Eysenck, H. J. (1993). String length, attention and intelligence: Focused attention reverses the string length-IQ relationship. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 363–371.Google Scholar
  5. Blinkhorn, S. F., and Hendrickson, D. E. (1982). Averaged evoked responses and psychometric intelligence. Nature, 295, 596–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, S., and Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science, 250, 223–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brebner, J. (1990). Psychological and neurophysiological factors in stimulus-response compatibility. In R. W. Proctor and T. G. Reeves (Eds.), Stimulus-response compatibility. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  8. Brody, N. (1992). Intelligence ( 2nd ed. ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bruneau, W., Roux, S., Perse, J., and Lelord, G. (1984). Frontal evoked responses, stimulus intensity control, and the extraversion dimension. In R. Karrer, J. Cohen, and P. Teuting (Eds.), Brain and information: Event-related potentials. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 425, 546–550.Google Scholar
  10. Buchsbaum, M. (1971). Neural events and the psychophysical law. Science, 172, 502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bullock, W. A., andGilliland, K. (1993). Eysenck’s arousal theory of introversion-extraversion: A converging measures investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 113–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cahill, J. M., and Polich, J. (1992). P300, probability, and introverted/extroverted personality types. Biological Psychology, 33, 23–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Callaway, E. (1975). Brain electric potentials and individual psychological differences. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  14. Callaway, E., and Halliday, R. A. (1973). Evoked potential variability: Effects of age, amplitude and methods of measurement. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 34, 125–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Campbell, K. B., Baribeau-Braun, J., and Braun, C. (1981). Neuro-anatomical and physiological foundations of extraversion. Psychophysiology, 18, 263–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Chalke, F. C. R., and Ertl, J. P. (1965). Evoked potentials and intelligence. Life Sciences, 4, 1319–1322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiappa, K. H. (Ed.). (1990). Evoked potentials in clinical medicine ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  19. Como, P. G., Simons, R., and Zuckerman, M. (1984). Psycho-physiological indices of sensation seeking as a function of stimulus intensity. Psychophysiology, 21, 572–573.Google Scholar
  20. Connolly, J. F., Aubry, K., McGillivary, N., and Scott, D. W. (1989). Human brainstem evoked responses fail to provide evidence of efferent modulation of auditory input during attentional tasks. Psychophysiology, 26, 292–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Connolly, J. F., and Gruzelier, J. H. (1982). Amplitude and latency changes in the visual evoked potential to different stimulus intensities. Psychophysiology, 19, 599–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Costa, P. T., and McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 653–666.Google Scholar
  23. Costa, P. T., McCrae, R. R., and Dye, D. A. (1991). Facet scales for Agreeableness and Conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO personality inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 887–898.Google Scholar
  24. Daruna, J. H., Karrer, R., and Rosen, A. J. (1985). Introversion, attention and the late positive component of event-related potentials. Biological Psychology, 20, 249–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis, F. B. (1971). The measurement of mental capability through evoked-potential recordings (pp. 1–171 ). Greenwich, CT: Educational Records Bureau.Google Scholar
  26. De Pascalis, V., and Montirosso, R. (1988). Extraversion, neuroticism and individual differences in event-related potentials. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 353–360.Google Scholar
  27. Deary, I., and Caryl, P. (1993). Intelligence, EEG, and evoked potentials. In P. A. Vernon (Ed.), Biological approaches to human intelligence. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  28. Desmedt, J. E. (1975). Physiological studies of the efferent recurrent auditory system. In W. D. Keidel and W. D. Neff (Eds.), Handbook of sensory physiology (Vol. 5 ). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Ditraglia, G. M., and Polich, J. (1991). P300 and introverted/ extraverted personality types. Psychophysiology, 28, 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Duncan-Johnson, C. C., and Donchin, E. (1982). The P300 component of the event-related brain potential as an index of information processing. Biological Psychology, 14, 1–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Egan, V. G., Chiswick, A., Brettle, R. P., and Goodwin, G. M. (in press). The Edinburgh cohort of HIV-positive drug users: The relationship between auditory P3 latency, cognitive function and self-rated mood. Psychological Medicine, 23. Google Scholar
  32. Engel, R., and Fay, W. (1972). Visual evoked responses at birth, verbal scores at three years, and IQ at four years. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 14, 283–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Engel, R., and Henderson, N. B. (1973). Visual evoked responses and IQ scores at school age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 15, 136–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ertl, J. P. (1968). Evoked potentials, neural efficiency, and IQ. In L. D. Proctor (Ed.), The proceedings of an international symposium on biocybernetics of the central nervous system (pp. 419–433 ). London: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  35. Ertl, J. P., and Schafer, E. W. P. (1969). Brain response correlates of psychometric intelligence. Nature, 223, 421–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  37. Eysenck, H. J. (1992). The definition and measurement of psychoticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 757–785.Google Scholar
  38. Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stoughton Educational.Google Scholar
  39. Fitzgerald, P. G., and Picton, T. W. (1981). Temporal and sequential probability in evoked potential studies. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 35, 188–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ford, J. M., Roth, W. T., Mohs, R. C., Hopkins, W. F., and Kopell, B. S. (1979). Event-related potentials recorded from young and old adults during a memory retrieval task. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 47, 450–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Friedman, D., Hakerem, G., Sutton, S., and Fleiss, J. L. (1973). Effect of stimulus uncertainty on the pupillary dilation response and the vertex evoked potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 34, 475–485.Google Scholar
  42. Gilbert, D. G., Johnson, S., Gilbert, B. O., and McColloch, M. A. (1991). Event-related potential correlates of IQ. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 1183–1184.Google Scholar
  43. Goldman, D., Kohn, P. M., and Hunt, R. W. (1983). Sensation seeking, augmenting-reducing and absolute auditory threshold: A strength-of-the-nervous-system perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 405–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gomer, F. E., Spicuzza, R. J., and O’Donnell, R. D. (1976). Evoked potential correlates of visual item recognition during memory-scanning tasks. Physiological Psychology, 4, 61–65.Google Scholar
  45. Gucker, D. K. (1973). Correlating visual evoked potentials with psychometric intelligence, variation in technique. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 37, 189–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Haier, R. J., Robinson, D. L., Braden, W., and Williams, D. (1983). Electrical potentials of the cerebral cortex and psychometric intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 591–599.Google Scholar
  47. Hegerl, U., Prochno, I., Ulrich, G., and Muller-Oelinghausen, B. (1989). Sensation seeking and auditory evoked potentials. Biological Psychiatry, 25, 179–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hendrickson, A. E., and Hendrickson, D. E. (1980). The biological basis of individual differences in intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 3–33.Google Scholar
  49. Hirschom, T. N., and Michie, P. T. (1990). Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and selective attention revisited. Psychophysiology, 27, 495–512.Google Scholar
  50. Howard, L., and Polich, J. (1985). P300 latency and memory span development. Developmental Psychology, 21, 283–289.Google Scholar
  51. Jackson, D. (1984). The Multidimensional Aptitude Battery manual. Port Huron, MI: Research Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  52. Jensen, A. R. (1987). Individual differences in the Hick paradigm. In P. A. Vernon (Ed.), Speed of information processing and intelligence (pp. 101–175 ). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  53. Jensen, A. R., and Munro, E. (1979). Reaction time, movement time, and intelligence. Intelligence, 3, 121–126.Google Scholar
  54. Jensen, A. R., Schafer, E. W. P., and Crinella, F. M. (1981). Reaction time, evoked brain potentials, and psychometric g in the severely retarded. Intelligence, 5, 179–197.Google Scholar
  55. Josiassen, R. C., Shagass, C., Roemer, R. A., and Slepner, S. (1988). Evoked potential correlates of intelligence in nonpatient subjects. Biological Psychology, 27, 207–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kline, P. (1991). Intelligence: The psychometric view. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Kohn, P. M. (1987). Issues in the measurement of arousability. In J. Strelau and H. J. Eysenck (Eds.), Personality dimensions and arousal. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  58. Kohn, P. M., Hunt, R. W., and Hoffman, E. M. (1982). Aspects of experience seeking. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 14, 13–23.Google Scholar
  59. Kutas, M., McCarthy, G., and Donchin, E. (1977). Augmenting mental chronometry: The P300 as a measure of stimulus evaluation time. Science, 197, 792–795.Google Scholar
  60. Ladish, C., and Polich, J. (1989). P300 and probability in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 48, 212–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Le Moal, M., and Simon, H. (1991). Mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network: Functional and regulatory roles. Physiological Reviews, 71, 155–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Loehlin, J. C. (1989). Partitioning environment and genetic contributions to behavioral development. American Psychologist, 44, 1285–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lukas, J. H. (1980). Human auditory attention: The olivo-cochlear bundle may function as a peripheral filter. Psychophysiology, 17,444–452.Google Scholar
  64. Lukas, J. H. (1987). Visual evoked potential augmenting-reducing and personality: The vertex augmenter is a sensation seeker. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 385–396.Google Scholar
  65. Malmo, R. B. (1959). Activation: A neurophysiological dimension. Psychological Review, 66, 367–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Malmo, R. B. (1975). On emotions, needs, and our archaic brain. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  67. Marshall, N. K., and Donchin, E. (1981). Circadian variation in the latency of brainstem responses: Its relation to body temperature. Science, 212, 356–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McGarry-Roberts, P. A., Stelmack, R. M., and Campbell, K. B. (1992). Intelligence, reaction time, and event-related potentials. Intelligence, 16, 289–313.Google Scholar
  69. Mullins, L. F., and Lukas, J. H. (1984). Auditory augmenters are sensation seekers-if they attend the stimuli. Psychophysiology, 21, 589.Google Scholar
  70. Neiss, R. (1988). Reconceptualizing arousal: Psychobiological states in motor performance. Psychological Bulletin, 10, 345–366.Google Scholar
  71. O’Donnell, B. F., Friedman, S., Swearer, J. M., and Drachman, D. A. (1992). Active and passive P3 latency and psychometric performance: Influence of age and individual differences. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 12, 187–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Orlebeke, J. E, Kok, A., and Zeillemaker, C. W. (1989). Disinhibition and the processing of auditory stimulus intensity: An ERP study. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 445–452.Google Scholar
  73. Osaka, M., and Osaka, N. (1980). Human intelligence and power spectral analysis of visual evoked potentials. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 50, 192–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pelosi, L., Holly, M., Slade, T., Hayward, M., Barrett, G., and Blumhardt, L. D. (1992a). Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of performance of intelligence tests. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 84, 515–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pelosi, L., Holly, M., Slade, T., Hayward, M., Barrett, G., and Blumhardt, L. D. (1992b). Wave form variations in auditory event-related potentials evoked by a memory-scanning task and their relationship with tests of intellectual function. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 84, 344–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Picton, T. W., Stapells, D., and Campbell, K. B. (1981). Auditory evoked potentials from the human cochlea and brainstem. Journal of Otolaryngology, 10, 1–41.Google Scholar
  77. Plooij-van Gorsel, E. (1981). EEG and cardiac correlates of neuroticism: A psychophysiological comparison of neurotics and controls in relation to personality. Biological Psychology, 13, 141–156.Google Scholar
  78. Polich, J., Ehlers, C. L., Otis, S., Mandell, A. J., and Bloom, F. E. (1986). P300 latency reflects the degree of cognitive decline in dementing illness. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 63, 138–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Polich, J., Ladish, C., and Bums, T. (1990). Normal variation of P300 in children: Age, memory span and head size. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 9, 237–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Polich, J., and Martin, S. (1992). P300, cognitive capability, and personality: A correlational study of university undergraduates. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 533–543.Google Scholar
  81. Pritchard, W. S. (1989). P300 and EPQ/STPI personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 15–24.Google Scholar
  82. Ragot, R. (1984). Perceptual and motor space representation: An event-related potential study. Psychophysiology, 21, 159–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ragot, R., and Renault, B. (1981). P300 as a function of S-R compatibility and motor programming. Biological Psychology, 13, 289–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Raine, A., Mitchell, D. A., and Venables, P. H. (1981). Cortical augmenting-reducing: Modality specific? Psychophysiology, 18, 700–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Revelle, W., and Anderson, K. J. (1992). Models for the testing of theory. In A. Gale and M. W. Eysenck (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences: Biological perspectives (pp. 81–114 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  86. Revelle, W., Anderson, K. J., and Humphreys, M. S. (1987). Empirical tests and theoretical extensions of arousal-based theories of personality. In J. Strelau and H. J. Eysenck (Eds.), Personality dimensions and arousal (pp. 17–36 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  87. Rhodes, L. E., Dustman, R. E., and Beck, E. C. (1969). The visual evoked response: A comparison of bright and dull children. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 27, 364–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Robinson, D. L., Haier, R. J., Braden, W., and Krengel, M. (1984). Psychometric intelligence and visual evoked potentials: A replication. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 487–489.Google Scholar
  89. Roth, W. T., Dorato, K. H., and Kopell, B. S. (1984). Intensity and task effects of evoked physiological responses to noise bursts. Psychophysiology, 21, 466–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rust, J. (1975). Cortical evoked potential, personality and intelligence. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 89, 1220–1226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schafer, E. W. P. (1982). Neural adaptability: A biological determinant of behavioral intelligence. International Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 183–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schafer, E. W. P., and Marcus, M. M. (1973). Self-stimulation alters human sensory brain responses. Science, 181, 175–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Shagass, C., Roemer, R. A., and Straumanis, J. J. (1981). Intelligence as a factor in evoked potential studies of psychopathology: II. Correlations between treatment-associate changes in IQ and evoked potentials. Biological Psychiatry, 16, 1031–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Shucard, D. W., and Horn, J. L. (1972). Evoked cortical potentials and measurement of human abilities. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 78,59–68.Google Scholar
  95. Smith, B. D. (1983). Extraversion and electrodermal activity: arousability and the inverted-U. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 411–420.Google Scholar
  96. Smith, B. D., Concannon, M., Campbell, S., Bozman, A., and Kline, R. (1990). Regression and criterion measures of habituation: A comparative analysis in extraverts and introverts. Journal of Research in Personality, 24, 123–132.Google Scholar
  97. Starr, A., and Achor, L. J. (1975). Auditory brainstem responses in neurological disease. Archives of Neurology, 32, 761–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stelmack, R. M., Achom, E., and Michaud, A. (1977). Extraversion and individual differences in auditory evoked response. Psychophysiology, 14, 368–374.Google Scholar
  99. Stelmack, R. M., and Campbell, K. B. (1974). Extraversion and auditory sensitivity to high and low frequency. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38, 875–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Stelmack, R. M., Campbell, K. B., and Bell, I. (1993). Extraversion and brainstem auditory evoked potentials during sleep and wakefulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 447–453.Google Scholar
  101. Stelmack, R. M., and Geen, R. G. (1992). The psychophysiology of extraversion. In A. Gale and M. W. Eysenck (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences: Biological perspectives (pp. 227–254 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  102. Stelmack, R. M., Houlihan, M., and McGarry-Roberts, P. A. (1993). Personality, reaction time, and event-related potentials. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 399–409.Google Scholar
  103. Stelmack, R. M., and Michaud-Achorn, A. (1985). Extraversion, attention, and habituation of the auditory evoked response. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 416–428.Google Scholar
  104. Stelmack, R. M., and Wilson, K. G. (1982). Extraversion and the effects of frequency and intensity on the auditory brainstem evoked response. Personality and Individual Differences, 3, 373–380.Google Scholar
  105. Stenberg, G., Rosen, I., and Risberg, J. (1988). Personality and augmenting/reducing in visual and auditory evoked potentials. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 571–580.Google Scholar
  106. Stenberg, G., Rosen, I., and Risberg, J. (1990). Attention and personality in augmenting/reducing of visual evoked potentials. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1243–1254.Google Scholar
  107. Sternberg, R. J. (1991). Death, taxes, and bad intelligence tests. Intelligence, 15, 257–269.Google Scholar
  108. Sternberg, S. (1969). Memory scanning: Mental processes revealed by reaction time experiments. American Scientist, 57, 421–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Stough, C. K. K., Nettelbeck, T., and Cooper, C. J. (1990). Evoked brain potentials, string length and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 401–406.Google Scholar
  110. Szelenberger, W. (1983). Brain stem auditory evoked potentials and personality. Biological Psychiatry, 18, 157–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Vanderwolf, C., and Robinson, T. (1981). Reticulo-cortical activity and behavior: A critique of the arousal theory and a new synthesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 459–514.Google Scholar
  112. Vernon, P. A. (1983). Speed of information processing and general intelligence. Intelligence, 7, 53–70.Google Scholar
  113. Vernon, R A., and Mori, M. (1992). Intelligence, reaction times, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. Intelligence, 16, 273–288.Google Scholar
  114. Vogel, F., Kruger, J., Schalt, E., Schnobel, R., and Hassling, L. (1987). No consistent relationships between oscillations and latencies of visually and auditory evoked EEG potentials and measures of mental performance. Human Neurobiology, 6, 173–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. von Knorring, L., and Perris, C. (1981). Biochemistry of the augmenting-reducing response in visual evoked potentials. Neuropsychobiology, 7, 1–8.Google Scholar
  116. Warren, L. R., and Marsh, G. R. (1979). Changes in event-related potentials during processing of Stroop stimuli. International Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson, K. G., and Stelmack, R. M. (1982). Power functions of loudness magnitude estimations and auditory brainstem evoked responses. Perception and Psychophysics, 31, 561–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wilson, M. A., and Languis, M. L. (1990). A topographic study of differences in the P300 between introverts and extraverts. Brain Topography, 2, 269–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimum level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  120. Zuckerman, M. (1989). Personality in the third dimension: A psychobiological approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 391–418.Google Scholar
  121. Zuckerman, M., Murtagh, T. M., and Siegel, J. (1974). Sensation seeking and cortical augmenting-reducing. Psychophysiology, 11, 535–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Stelmack
    • 1
  • Michael Houlihan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity.of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations