The World Trade Organization

  • M. A. G. van Meerhaeghe


The implementation of a multilateral trade and payments system was facilitated by the establishment of the Fund and the Bank. It proved more difficult to reach agreement on the reduction of customs duties and the abolition of quantitative restrictions and discriminations, partly owing to the fact that these matters were more closely bound up with balance-of-payments equilibrium. In order to avoid a recurrence of the protectionism of the 1930s vigorous efforts were necessary to dismantle these various kinds of trade barriers. This chapter is devoted to the action taken in this respect within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and later the World Trade Organization (WTO).


World Trade Organization Member Country Contracting Parti Uruguay Round Custom Duty 
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A. GATT-WTO publications

  1. Basic Instruments and selected documents and their Supplements for official texts. See also, The results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The legal texts,1994.Google Scholar
  2. The annual report: International trade 19..119… Since December 1964, the International Trade Centre has issued a quarterly review, Forum,and a large number of publications on marketing and export promotion.Google Scholar

B. Other publications

  1. K W. Dam, The GATT law and international economic organization ( Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1970 )Google Scholar
  2. G. and V. Curzon, Defusing conflict between traders and non-traders. The World Economy,1969, No 1Google Scholar
  3. K..Stegemann, Policy rivalry among industrial states. What can we learn from models of strategic trade policy?, International organization,1989, No lGoogle Scholar
  4. P. Moser. The political economy of the GATT ( Rueegger, Gruesch, 1990 )Google Scholar
  5. J. M. Finger, The GATT as an international discipline over trade restrictions. A public choice approach, in The political economy of international organizations (ed. R Vaubel and T. D. Willett, Westview Press. Boulder, 1991 )Google Scholar
  6. K. Stegemann, Uruguay Round results for new issues, in Technology, information and public policy. Bell Canada Papers on Public Policy (ed. T. J Courchene, John Deutsch institute, Queen’s Univ., Kingston, Ontario, 1995 ).Google Scholar

C. The Customs Cooperation Council

  1. While GATT is concerned with problems of economic policy, the Customs Cooperation Council (CCC) is a technical body for the study of customs problems. The convention establishing the CCC was signed in Brussels on 15 December 1950 and came into force on 4 November 1952. Its main purpose is to assemble the executive machinery for the interpretation and application of two other conventions signed also on 15 December 1950— the Convention on Nomenclature for the Classification of Goods in Customs Tariffs and the Convention on the Valuation of Goods for Customs Purposes.Google Scholar
  2. The first convention, which entered into force on 11 September 1959, set up the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature (BTN). The tariffs of many countries and regional organizations (including the EEC and EFTA) are based on the BTN. The aim of the second convention, which came into force on 28 July 1953, is to achieve maximum uniformity in the valuation of goods for customs purposes.Google Scholar
  3. The International Convention on the harmonized commodity description and coding system was signed by the EEC states and 18 other countries on 10 June 1985. The Convention was developed over 10 years by experts from 60 countries. The harmonized system brings together in a single, integrated instrument the descriptions needed for customs tariffs, statistical nomenclatures and transport classifications. It will replace the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. G. van Meerhaeghe

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