Mutual coupling between optical modes is essential in the design of integrated optic devices. In this chapter we will describe how optical energy couples between modes within and between optical waveguides. Up to now, we have treated the waveguide as an ideal optical wire, which conveys light from one point to another in the form of a “mode”. We have implicitly assumed that these modes, once formed, are unchanging except perhaps through attenuation due to absorption. In reality, simple mechanisms can lead to significant energy exchange among the various modes of a structure. Coupled mode theory describes this energy exchange, and serves as the primary tool for designing optical couplers, switches, and filters.
KeywordsFiber Bragg Grating Coupling Coefficient Optical Waveguide Waveguide Structure Couple Mode Theory
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