In 1837, the era of electrical communication began with the demonstration of the telegraph by Samuel Morse. The telegraph passed information at a data rate, in modern terminology, of a few bits per second, but the speed of propagation was essentially infinite compared to the message itself. The transmission medium was wire cable. The telegraph was followed by Alexander Graham Bell’s invention of the telephone. The first telephone exchange was operated in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, in 1878. At approximately 4 kHz bandwidth, the telephone represented a major increase in the effective bandwidth of a moderate distance communication system.
KeywordsOptical Waveguide Effective Bandwidth Optical Communication System Transmission Medium Optical Carrier
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- J. C. Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 2 vol. Unabridged 3rd ed., Dover Publications, New York (1954).Google Scholar
- Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, Electric Waves, 2d ed. Macmillan and Co., London, New York (1900).Google Scholar
- J. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics, 2nd Ed., Chap. 2, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, (1989).Google Scholar
- K. C. Kao and G. A. Hockman, Proc. IEE, vol. 133, pp. 1151–1158 (1966).Google Scholar
- F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, and R. D. Maurer, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 423–425 (1970).Google Scholar
- Paul E. Green, Jr., Fiber Optic Networks, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1993).Google Scholar
- Stuart Personik, Optical Fiber Transmission Systems, Plenum Press, New York (1981), and Fiber Optics Technology and Applications, Plenum Press, New York (1985).Google Scholar