Complexity and Criticality



How can the universe start with a few types of elementary particles at the big bang, and end up with life, history, economics, and literature? The question is screaming out to be answered but it is seldom even asked. Why did the big bang not form a simple gas of particles, or condense into one big crystal? We see complex phenomena around us so often that we take them for granted without looking for further explanation. In fact, until recently very little scientific effort was devoted to understanding why nature is complex.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Bak

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