Regulation of Macrophage Effector Function by B Cell Stimulatory Factor-1 (BSF-1)
Macrophages that accumulate during immune responses in vivo acquire a broad range of changes not present in the steady-state tissue macrophage or in cells from sterile, irritant-Induced inflammatory reactions. These Immunologically activated macrophages display increased levels of certain cell membrane components (la antigen, Fc receptors) and become cytotoxic to tumor and microbial target cells. Characterization of the lymphokines (LK) that regulate the activated macrophage, macrophage activation factors or MAF, remains one of the more controversial areas in immunology. Twenty years or even 10 years ago, there was a single, albeit uncharacterized MAF: migration inhibitory factor or MIF. This apparently simple situation rapidly evolved into a labyrinth of multiple LK factors, each with its own acronym: MIF, MAF, SMAF, MCF, MCIF, MCIF2 and others (1). Hope for resolution of this puzzle was provided by recent reports that recombinant gamma interferon (IFN) alone, induces many of the changes in macrophages that occur during immunologic activation. Indeed, several groups of investigators now propose IFN as the only MAF (2,3). But macrophage activation is not that simple. MAF physicochemically and biologically distinct from IFN have been described in both murine and human assay systems (4–8). Of special interest is the recent report that recombinant human GM-CSF activates peripheral blood monocytes to kill tumor target cells (9).
KeywordsMigration Inhibitory Factor Peripheral Blood Monocyte Microbicidal Activity Tumor Cytotoxicity Listeria Monocytogenes Infection
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