Advertisement

Non-sucrose carbohydrates

  • M. A. Clarke

Abstract

The chapter title, ‘non-sucrose carbohydrates’, is correct, in that sucrose in the form of cane or beet sugars will not be discussed. Many of the sweeteners included, however, do contain sucrose, in combination with other carbohydrates, generally monosaccharides and other disaccharides. The oldest sweetener known to man, honey, is a liquid mixture of mono- and di-saccharides. Honey, maple syrup (probably the first sweetener made by man in America), and their twentieth-century companions, corn sweeteners, are major subjects of this chapter. Molasses and syrups made from sugar cane or sugar beet and containing sucrose among other sugars, are the other major subjects. Each group of sweeteners will be described from the point of view of origin and manufacture, composition, physical, chemical and sensory properties, applications in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries, and range of products available.

Keywords

Sweet Sorghum Corn Syrup Cane Molas Bake Good High Fructose Corn Syrup 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amylase Research Society of Japan (1988) Handbook of Amylase and Related Enzymes, Pergamon Press, New York. 274 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Corn Refiners Association (1989) Nutritive Sweeteners from Corn,5th edn., C.R.A., Inc., 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  3. Crane, E.V. (1979) Honey: A Comprehensive Survey, Heinemann, London, 320 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Fishbein, L., Kaplan, M. and Gough, M. (1988) Fructo-oligosaccharides: a review. Ver. Hum. Toxicol. 30, 104–107.Google Scholar
  5. Grenby, T.H. (1983) Nutritive sucrose substitutes and dental health. In Developments in Sweeteners, Vol. 2, eds. T.H. Grenby, K.J. Parker and M.G. Lindley, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 254 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Howling, D. (1979) The general science and technology of glucose syrups. In Sugar: Science and Technology, eds., G.G. Birch and K.J. Parker, Elsevier Applied Science, London, p. 475.Google Scholar
  7. Johnson, J.C. (1976) Specialized Sugars for the Food Industry, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 580 pp.Google Scholar
  8. McGinnis, R. A. (1987) Beet-Sugar Technology, 3rd edn., Beet Sugar Development Foundation, P.O. Box 538, Fort Collins, CO 80521, 835 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Meade, G.P. and Chen, J.C.P. (1985) Cane Sugar Handbook, Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1134 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Morano, J. (1984) Functional Properties of Molasses, Crompton and Knowles Corp., Ingredient Technology Division. 900 Route 9, Woodbridge, NJ 07095.Google Scholar
  11. Mizota, T., Tamura, Y., Tornita, M. and Okonogi, S. (1987) Lactulose as a sugar with physiological significance. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 212, 69–76.Google Scholar
  12. Pancoast, H.M. and Junk, W.R. (1980) Handbook of Sugars, 2nd edn., Avi, Westport, CT, 598 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Parrish, F.W., Talley, F.B., Ross, K.D., Clark, J. and Phillips, J. (1979) Sweetness of lactulose relative to sucrose, J. Food Sci. 44, 813–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Paturau, J.M. (1982) By-products of the Cane Sugar Industry, 2nd edn., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 366 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Righelato, R.C. (1987) Crystalline fructose, Address to the Sugar Club, New York, Jan. 27, 1987.Google Scholar
  16. Schwengers, D., Benecke, H. and Giehring, H. (1988) Leucrose—production and use, Proc. Sugar Ind. Technol. 47 245–250; also U.S. Patent 4,693,974, Sept. 15, 1987.Google Scholar
  17. United Molasses Trading Co., Ltd. (1976) Composition, Properties and Uses of Molasses and Related Products,80 pp.Google Scholar
  18. United Molasses Trading Co., Ltd. (1986) The Analysis of Molasses.Google Scholar
  19. White, W. Jr. and Underwood, J.C. (1974) Maple syrup and honey. In Symposium: Sweeteners, Avi, Westport, CT, 240 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Williams, C.A. (1983) Lactose hydrolysate syrups: Physiological and metabolic effects. In Developments in Sweeteners, eds. T.H. Grenby, K.J. Parker and M.G. Lindley, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 254 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Clarke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations