Gifted Children: The Promise of Potential/The Problems of Potential

  • Ellen D. Fiedler
Part of the Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)


For a teacher of the gifted, it was a familiar problem. Matt’s regular classroom teacher was complaining, “He has such potential! If only he’d apply himself.” All the signs of his giftedness were there: scores in the 95th percentile and above on standardized tests of ability and achievement, behavioral indicators such as advanced conceptualization, intense intellectual curiosity, ability to generalize and see relations far beyond that of his age peers, heightened sensitivity. However, Matt was simply not doing well in school. “An underachiever, that’s what he is,” said the classroom teacher, shrugging her shoulders in frustration. “He only does classroom work when he’s interested in it, and then his work is either okay or, once in a while, even outstanding. The rest of the time he’s doing nothing, at least nothing that relates to what we’re doing in class.” Then there is Tricia. Tricia’s performance has remained outstanding throughout her elementary school years—top of her class, every teacher’s favorite, the “ideal” student, the epitome of giftedness. Tricia always does more than what anyone expects of her; every project, every paper, every exam is exemplary. She always has a smile on her face and always seems willing to tutor others or do whatever it takes to win the approval of everyone: her parents, her teachers, her friends, everyone. Everyone comments on how well she is doing in school. Everyone wonders what she will be “when she grows up,” but no one really knows who she is now.


Gifted Student Emotional Adjustment Gifted Child Talented Student Gifted Education 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altman, R. (1983). Social-emotional development of gifted children and adolescents: A research model. Roeper Review, 6, 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvino, J. (1991). An investigation into the needs of gifted boys. Roeper Review, 13 (4), 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Association of Gifted Children. (1978). On being gifted New York: Walker.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, G. J., and Walberg, H. J. (1974). Learning environments. In H. J. Walberg (Ed.), Evaluating educational performance: A sourcebook of methods, instruments, and examples, (pp. 81–98 ). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Bachtold, L. M. (1969). Personality differences among high ability under-achievers. Journal of Educational Research, 63, 16–18.Google Scholar
  6. Bachtold, L. M. (1978). Bright adolescents of the sixties: The survivors. Psychology, 15, 60–67.Google Scholar
  7. Belcastro, F. P. (1985). Use of behavior modification with academically gifted students: A review of the research Roeper Review, 7, 184–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berndt, D. J., Kaiser, C. F., and Van Aalst, F. (1982). Depression and self-actualization in gifted adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 142–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Betts, G. T. (1986). Development of the emotional and social needs of gifted individuals. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 587–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Betts, G. T. ( 1988, February). The autonomous learner model. Presentation at the Mid-Winter Institute of the National Association for Gifted Children, Phoenix, AZ.Google Scholar
  11. Betts, G. T., and Neihart, M. (1988). Profiles of the gifted and talented. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 248–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackburn, A. C., and Erickson, D. B. (1986). Predictable crises of the gifted student. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 552–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brody, L. E., and Benbow, C. P. (1986). Social and emotional adjustment of adolescents extremely talented in verbal or mathematical reasoning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 15, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooks, R. (1980). Gifted delinquents. Educational Research, 22, 212–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brounstein, P. J., Holohan, W., and Sawyer, R. (1988). The expectations and motivations of gifted students in a residential academic program: A study of individual differences. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 11, 36–52.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, A. J. (1978). The dilemma of the divergent gifted child. Roeper Review, 1, 13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buescher, T. M. (1984). What do the national calls for reform mean for the gifted and talented? An interview with James Gallagher. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 7, 229–237.Google Scholar
  18. Burns, F. (1983). Sex differences-a silent message? A comparison study of parents’ and junior high school students’ self-assessment of learning strengths and interests. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 6, 195–212.Google Scholar
  19. Callahan, C. M. (1979). The gifted and talented woman. In A. H. Passow (Ed.). The gifted and talented: Their education and development (Seventy-eighth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, pp. 401–423 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Callahan, C. M., Cunningham, C. M., and Plucker, J. A. (1994). Foundations for the future: The socio-emotional development of gifted, adolescent women. Roeper Review, 17 (2), 99–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark, B. (1986). Optimizing learning: The integrative education model in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Merrill. Clark, B. (1997). Growing up gifted ( 5th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.Google Scholar
  22. Clinkenbeard, P. R. (1989). The motivation to win: Negative aspects of success at competition. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 12 (4), 293–305.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, L. M. (1996). Mapping the domains of ignorance and knowledge in gifted education. Roeper Review, 18(3), 183–189.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, R., Duncan, M., and Cohen, S. L. (1994). Classroom peer relations of children participating in a pull-out enrichment program. Gifted Child Quarterly, 38 (1), 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Colangelo, N., Kerr, B., Christensen, P., and Maxey, J. (1993). A comparison of gifted underachievers and gifted high achievers. Gifted Child Quarterly, 37 (4), 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cornell, D. G. (1990). High ability students who are unpopular with their peers. Gifted Child Quarterly, 34 (4), 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cox, J., Daniel, N., and Boston, B. (1985). Educating able learners: Programs and promising practices. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cross, T. (1996). Examining claims about gifted children and suicide. Gifted Child Today, 19(1), 46–48.Google Scholar
  29. Cross, T. (1997). Guiding and supporting the development of gifted children, part one. Gifted Child Today, 20, 46–48.Google Scholar
  30. Cross, T. L., Coleman, L. J., and Stewart, R. A. (1993). The social cognition of gifted adolescents: An exploration of the stigma of giftedness paradigm. Roeper Review, 16(1), 37–40.Google Scholar
  31. Dabrowski, K. (1964). Positive disintegration. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  32. Dabrowski, K. (1972). Psychoneurosis is not an illness. London: Gryf.Google Scholar
  33. Dabrowski, K., and Piechowski, M. M. (1977). Theory of levels of emotional development (Vols. 1 and 2 ). Oceanside, NY: Dabor Science.Google Scholar
  34. Dauber, S. L., and Benbow, C. P. (1990). Aspects of personality and peer relations of extremely talented adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 34 (1), 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davis, G. A., and Colangelo, N. (Eds.) (1997). Handbook of gifted education ( 2nd ed. ). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  36. Davis, G. A., and Rimm, S. B. (1998). Education of the gifted and talented ( 4th ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Delisle, J. (1980). Preventative counseling for the gifted adolescent: From words to action. Roeper Review, 3, 21–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Delisle, J. R. (1984). Gifted children speak out. New York: Walker.Google Scholar
  39. Delisle, J. R. (1987a). Gifted education in transition: The dawn of a new era. Roeper Review, 9, 188–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Delisle, J. R. (1987b). Gifted kids speak out. Minneapolis: Free Spirit.Google Scholar
  41. Delisle, J. R. (1990). The gifted adolescent at risk: Strategies and resources for suicide prevention among gifted youth. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13(3), 212–228.Google Scholar
  42. Delisle, J. R., Whitmore, J. R., and Ambrose, R. P. (1987). Preventing discipline problems with gifted students. Teaching Exceptional Children, 19, 32–38.Google Scholar
  43. Dirkes, M. A. (1983). Anxiety in the gifted: Pluses and minuses. Roeper Review, 6, 68–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dixon, D. N., and Scheckel, J. R. (1996). Gifted adolescent suicide: The empirical base. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 7 (3), 386–393f.Google Scholar
  45. Dowdall, C. B., and Colangelo, N. (1982). Underachieving gifted students: Review and implications. Gifted Child Quarterly, 26, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dunn, R., Dunn, K., and Price, G. E. (1981). Learning styles: Research versus opinion. Phi Delta Kappan, 62, 645–646.Google Scholar
  47. Dunnell, P. A., and Bakken, L. (1991). Gifted high school students’ attitudes towards careers and sex roles. Roeper Review, 13 (4), 198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Edwards, S. S., and Kleine, P. A. (1986). Multimodal consultation: A model for working with gifted adolescents. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 598–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.Google Scholar
  50. Fiedler, E. D. (1993). Square pegs in round holes: Gifted kids who don’t fit in. Understanding Our Gifted, 5(5A), 1, 11–14.Google Scholar
  51. Fiedler, E. D. (1995). “Basic training” for teachers of the gifted. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  52. Fiedler, E. D. ( 1997, July). Dabrowski 101. Paper presented at the 12th world conference of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  53. Fiedler-Brand, E. (1990). Gifted students at risk: A study of dissonance with the educational environment, Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (2A), 414A.Google Scholar
  54. Fine, M. J., and Pitts, R. (1980). Intervention with underachieving gifted children: Rationale and strategies. Gifted Child Quarterly, 24, 51–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fisher, R. J., and Wass, H. (1970). What price excellence? College Student Survey, 4, 89–92.Google Scholar
  56. Fitzpatrick, J. L. (1978). Academic underachievement, other-direction, and attitudes toward women’s roles in bright adolescent females. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 645–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fleming, E. S., and Hollinger, C. L. (1981). The multidimensionality of talent in adolescent young women. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 4, 188–198.Google Scholar
  58. Ford, D. Y. (1992). Determinants of underachievement as perceived by gifted, above-average, and average Black students. Roeper Review, 14 (3), 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fox, L. H. (1978). Interest correlates to differential achievement of gifted students in mathematics. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 1, 24–36.Google Scholar
  60. Frederickson, R. H. (1986). Preparing gifted and talented students for the world of work. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 556–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. French, J. L. (1969). Characteristics of high-ability dropouts. NASSP Bulletin, 53, 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. French, J. L. (1975). The highly intelligent drop-out. In W. B. Barbe and J. S. Renzulli (Eds.), Psychology and education of the gifted (pp. 431–432 ). New York: Halsted Press.Google Scholar
  63. Gagné, F. (1994). Are teachers really poor talent detectors? Comments on Pegnato and Birch’s (1959) study of the effectiveness and efficiency of various identification techniques. Roeper Review, 38(3), 124–126.Google Scholar
  64. Gallagher, J. J. (1985). Teaching the gifted child. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  65. Gallagher, J. J. (1990). Editorial: The public and professional perception of the emotional status of gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13(3), 202–211.Google Scholar
  66. Gallagher, J. J., and Gallagher, S. A. (1994). Teaching the gifted child (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Gallagher, S. A. (1996). A new look (again) at gifted girls and mathematics achievement. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education,7(4), 459–475.Google Scholar
  67. Gallucci, N. T. (1988). Emotional adjustment of gifted children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 273–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Garamella, M., and Lang, H. (1980). An investigation of the relationship between the abilities of troubled youth and the degree to which these abilities could be termed gifted and talented. Portsmouth, NH: New England Teacher Corps Network. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED196245).Google Scholar
  69. Gardner, H. (1985). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  70. Gardner, H. (December, 1997 ). An education for all human beings. Paper presented at Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  71. Grau, P. N. (1985a). Two causes of underachievement-the scapegoat phenomenon and the Peter Pan syndrome, Part I. G/C/T, 8, 47–50.Google Scholar
  72. Grau, P. N. (1985b). Two causes of underachievement-the scapegoat phenomenon and the Peter Pan syndrome, Part II. GICIT, 9, 9–11.Google Scholar
  73. Greenberg, K. H., Coleman, L., and Rankin, W. W. (1993). The Cognitive Enrichment Network Program: Goodness of fit with at-risk gifted students. Roeper Review, 16 (2), 91–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gregory, E. H., and Stevens-Long, J. (1986). Coping skills among highly gifted adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 9, 147–155.Google Scholar
  75. Grotberg, E. H. (1975). Adjustment problems of the gifted. In W. B. Barbe and J. S. Renzulli (Eds.), Psychology and education of the gifted (pp. 208–213 ). New York: Halsted Press.Google Scholar
  76. Gust, K. (1997). Is the literature on social and emotional needs empirically based? Gifted Child Today, 20, 12–13.Google Scholar
  77. Gust, K. L. (1996). Assessing the social and emotional needs of the gifted: Using the Children’s Self-Report and Projective Inventory as a potential tool. Gifted Child Today, 19(5), 12–13.Google Scholar
  78. Hall, E. (1978). Gaining a future through self-understanding. Roeper Review, 1, 13–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Harvey, S., and Seeley, K. (1984). An investigation of the relationships among intellectual and creative abilities, extra-curricular activities, achievement, and giftedness in a delinquent population. Gifted Child Quarterly, 28, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hayes, M. L., and Sloat, R. S. (1990). Suicide and the gifted adolescent. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13(3), 229–244.Google Scholar
  81. Hebert, T. P. (1991). Meeting the affective needs of bright boys through bibliotherapy. Roeper Review, 13 (4), 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Herr, E. L. (1965). Differential perceptions of “environmental press” by high school students. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 43, 678–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Holahan, W., and Brounstein, P. J. ( 1986, April). The acceleration into college and emotional adjustment of the academically gifted adolescent: A synthesis and critique of recent literature. Paper presented at the Convention of the American College Personnel Association, New Orleans, LA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED280222)Google Scholar
  84. Hollinger, C. (1983). Counseling the gifted and talented female adolescent: The relationship between social self-esteem and traits of instrumentality and expressiveness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 27, 157–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hollinger, C. L. (1985a). The stability of self perceptions of instrumental and expressive traits among gifted and talented female adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 8, 107–126.Google Scholar
  86. Hollinger, C. L. (1985b). Understanding the female adolescent’s self perceptions of ability. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 9, 59–80.Google Scholar
  87. Hollinger, C. L. (1986). Career Aspirations as a function of Holland personality type among mathematically talented female adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted,9, 133–145.Google Scholar
  88. Hollinger, C. L., and Fleming, E. S. (1984). Internal barriers to the realization of potential: Correlates and interrelationships among gifted and talented female adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 28, 135–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hollinger, C. L., and Fleming, E. S. (1988). Gifted and talented young women: Antecedents and correlates of life satisfaction. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 254–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hollingworth, L. (1926). Gifted children: Their nature and nurture. New York: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hollingworth, L. (1942). Children above 180IQ Stanford-Binet: Origin and development. New York: World Book. Hunsaker, S. L. (1994). Creativity as a characteristic of giftedness: Teachers see it, then they don’t. Roeper Review, 17 (1), 11–15.Google Scholar
  92. Impelizzeri, A. E., Farrell, M. J., and Melville, W. G. (1976). Psychological and emotional needs of gifted youngsters. NASSP Bulletin, 60, 43–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jacobs, J. E., and Weisz, V. (1994). Gender stereotypes: Implications for gifted education. Roeper Review, 16(3), 152–155.Google Scholar
  94. Janos, P. M., Fung, H. C., and Robinson, N. M. (1985). Self-concept, self-esteem, and peer relations among gifted children who feel “different.” Gifted Child Quarterly, 29, 78–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Johnston, P. S. (1988). Bridging the gap between theory and practice with gifted underachievers: A country psychologist’s view. Gifted International, 5, 95–103.Google Scholar
  96. Kaiser, C. F., and Berndt, D. J. (1985). Predictors of loneliness in the gifted adolescent. Gifted Child Quarterly, 29, 74–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kaplan, S. N. (1986). Perceptions of gifted and non-gifted students toward the learning experiences of an ideological curriculum (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 2004A.Google Scholar
  98. Karnes, F. A., and Oehler-Stinnett, J. J. (1986). Life events as stressors with gifted adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 23, 406–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kelly, K. R., and Cobb, S. J. (1991). A profile of the career development characteristics of young gifted adolescents: Examining gender and multicultural differences in achievement and accomplishment. Roeper Review, 13(4), 202–206.Google Scholar
  100. Kerr, B. (1985). Smart girls, gifted women. Columbus, OH: Ohio Psychology.Google Scholar
  101. Kerr, B., Colangelo, N., and Gaeth, J. (1988). Gifted adolescents’ attitudes toward their giftedness. Gifted Child Quarterly, 32, 245–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kerr, B. A. (1986). Guiding gifted girls. Momentum, 17, 34–37.Google Scholar
  103. Kitano, M. K. (1990). Intellectual abilities and psychological intensities in young children: Implications for the gifted. Roeper Review, 13(1), 5–10.Google Scholar
  104. Kline, B. E. (1991). The power of choice. Roeper Review, 13 (4), 172–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kline, B. E., and Short, E. B. (1991). Changes in emotional resilience: Gifted adolescent boys. Roeper Review, 13 (4), 184–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kolb, K. J., and Jussim, L. (1994). Teacher expectations and underachieving gifted children. Roeper Review, 17 (1), 26–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kramer, L. R. (1987). The ability/achievement dilemma of gifted middle level girls. In Schools in the middle: A report on trends and practices (publication of the National Association of Secondary School Principals, pp. 1–4 ).Google Scholar
  108. Kunkel, M. A., Chapa, B., Patterson, G., and Walling, D. D. (1995). The experience of giftedness: A concept map. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39 (3), 126–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lajoie, S. P., and Shore, B. M. (1981). Three myths? The over-representation of the gifted among dropouts, delinquents, and suicides. Gifted Child Quarterly, 25 (3), 138–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Landrum, N. S. (1987). Guidelines for implementing a guidance/counseling program for gifted and talented students. Roeper Review, 10, 103–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Leroux, J. A. (1988). Voices from the classroom: Academic and social self-concepts of gifted adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 11, 3–18.Google Scholar
  112. Lindley, H., and Keithley, M. E. (1991). Gender expectations and student achievement. Roeper Review, 13(4), 213–215.Google Scholar
  113. Lindstrom, R. R., and VanSant, S. (1986). Special issues in working with gifted minority adolescents. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 583–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Linehan, P. (1992). Homeschooling for gifted primary students. Understanding Our Gifted, 5(1), 18.Google Scholar
  115. Lovecky, D. V. (1986). Can you hear the flowers singing? Issues for gifted adolescents. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 572–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lovecky, D. V. (1991). The sensitive gifted boy. Understanding Our Gifted, 3, 3.Google Scholar
  117. Lovecky, D. V. (1992). Exploring social and emotional aspects of giftedness in children. Roeper Review, 15(1), 18–25.Google Scholar
  118. Ludwig, G., and Cullinan, D. (1984). Behavior problems of gifted and nongifted elementary school girls and boys. Gifted Child Quarterly, 28, 37–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Luftig, R. L., and Nichols, M. L. (1990). Assessing the social status of gifted students by their age peers. Gifted Child Quarterly, 34(3), 111–115.Google Scholar
  120. Maker, C. J. (1982). Curriculum development for the gifted. Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  121. Maker, C. J., and Nielson, A. B. (1996). Curriculum development in the education of the gifted. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Manaster, G. J., and Powell, P. M. (1983). A framework for understanding gifted adolescents’ psychological maladjustment. Roeper Review, 6, 70–73.Google Scholar
  122. Marland, S. P. (1972). Education of the gifted and talented: Report to the Congress of the United States by the U.S. Commissioner of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  123. Mattson, C. (1985). Misfits in school: Creative divergent children. Saratoga, CA: R and E Publishers.Google Scholar
  124. May, K. M. (1994). A developmental view of a gifted child’s social and emotional adjustment. Roeper Review, 17 (2), 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. McCallister, C., Nash, W. R., and Meckstroth, E. (1996). The social competence of gifted children: Experiments and experience. Roeper Review, 18(4), 273–276.Google Scholar
  126. McCants, G. E (1985). Suicide among the gifted. GCT, 38, 27–29.Google Scholar
  127. McDonald, J., Moore, M., and Freehill, M. (1982). Discrepant giftedness. Roeper Review, 5, 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. McDowell, J. A. (1984). Coping with social and emotional factors through various strategies: Help for the gifted student. Creative Child and Adult Quarterly, 9, 18–27.Google Scholar
  129. Miller, K. E (1987). Perceptions of identified gifted students regarding secondary school gifted programs (Doctoral dissertation, Lehigh University, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 2987A.Google Scholar
  130. Miller, N. B., and Silverman, L. K. (1987). Levels of personality development. Roeper Review, 9, 221–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Myers, R. S., and Pace, T. M. (1986). Counseling gifted and talented students: Historical perspectives and contemporary issues. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 548–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Nail, J. M., and Evans, J. G. (1997). The emotional adjustment of gifted adolescents: A view of global functioning. Roeper Review, 20 (1), 18–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  134. Nicholls, J. G. (1975). Causal attribution and other achievement-related cognitions: Effects of task outcomes, attainment values and sex. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 379–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Norfleet, M. A. (1968). Personality characteristics of achieving and under-achieving high ability senior women. Personal and Guidance Journal, 46, 976–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Olshen, S. R., and Matthews, D. J. (1987). The disappearance of giftedness in girls: An intervention strategy. Roeper Review, 9, 251–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Passow, A. H. (1981). The nature of giftedness and talent. Gifted Child Quarterly, 25, 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Passow, A. H. (1986). Curriculum for the gifted and talented at the secondary level. Gifted Child Quarterly, 30, 186–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pegnato, C. W., and Birch, J. W. (1959). Locating gifted children in junior high schools: Comparison of methods. Exceptional Children, 25, 300–304.Google Scholar
  140. Perrone, P. (1986). Guidance needs of gifted children, adolescents, and adults. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 564–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Peyton, G. (1987). Perceived essential qualities of teachers of the gifted and non-gifted student. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 4259A.Google Scholar
  142. Piechowski, M. M. (1979). Developmental potential. In N. Colangelo and R. T. Zaffrann (Eds.), New voices in counseling the gifted (pp. 25–57 ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
  143. Piechowski, M. M. (1991). Emotional development and emotional giftedness. In N. Colangelo and G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (pp. 285–306 ). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  144. Piechowski, M. M. (1997). Emotional giftedness: The measure of intrapersonal intelligence. In N. Colangelo and G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education ( 2nd ed., pp. 366–381 ). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  145. Piirto, J. (1994). Talented children and adults: Their development and education. New York: Merrill.Google Scholar
  146. Pirozzo, R. (1982). Gifted underachievers. Roeper Review, 4, 18–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Propper, M. M., and Clark, E. T. (1969). Alienation syndrome among affluent adolescent underachievers. Great Neck, NY: Great Neck Public Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED034274)Google Scholar
  148. Puckett, S. (1996). Mark: A case study in gifted underachievement. Gifted Child Today, 19(3), 14–15, 40–41.Google Scholar
  149. Randall, V. (1997). Gifted girls, what challenges do they face: A summary of the research. Gifted Child Today, 20, 42–49.Google Scholar
  150. Randhawa, B. S., and Fu, L. L. W. (1973). Assessment and effect of some classroom environment variables. Review of Educational Research, 43, 303–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Read, C. R. (1991). Gender distribution in programs for the gifted. Roeper Review, 13 (4), 188–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Reis, S. M. (1987). We can’t change what we don’t recognize: Understanding the special needs of gifted females. Gifted Child Quarterly, 31, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Reis, S. M. (1991). The need for clarification in research designed to examine gender differences in achievement and accomplishment. Roeper Review, 13(4), 193–197.Google Scholar
  154. Reis, S. M. (1995). Talent ignored, talent diverted: The cultural context underlying giftedness in females. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(3), 162–170.Google Scholar
  155. Renzulli, J. S. (1977). The enrichment triad model: A guide for developing defensible programs for the gifted and talented. Mansfield, CT: Creative Learning Press.Google Scholar
  156. Reynolds, C. R., and Bradley, M. (1983). Emotional stability of intellectually superior children versus non-gifted peers as estimated by chronic anxiety levels. School Psychology Review, 12, 190–194.Google Scholar
  157. Rimm, S. B. (1986). Underachievement syndrome: Causes and cures. Watertown, WI: Apple Publishing. Roedell, W. C. (1984). Vulnerabilities of highly gifted. Roeper Review, 16, 120–130.Google Scholar
  158. Roeper, A. (1982). How the gifted cope with their emotions. Roeper Review, 5, 21–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Roeper, A. (1995). How to help the underachieving gifted child. In Annemarie Roeper: Selected writings and speeches (pp. 53–57 ). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.Google Scholar
  160. Rogers, K. B. (1986). Do the gifted think and learn differently? A review of recent research and its implications for instruction. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 10, 17–39.Google Scholar
  161. Ross, P. O. (1993). National excellence: The case for developing America’s Talent. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  162. Roth, H. J. (1987). Utilizing earliest recollections as a counseling technique for gifted and talented students who have social adjustment problems at school. Roeper Review, 9, 226–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sadowski, A. J. (1987). A case study of the experiences of and influences upon gifted high school dropouts (Doctoral dissertation, University of Miami, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 890A.Google Scholar
  164. St. Clair, K. L. (1989). Counseling gifted students: A historical review. Roeper Review, 12 (2), 98–102.Google Scholar
  165. Sanborn, M. P. (1979). Differential counseling needs of the gifted and talented. In N. Colangelo and R. T. Zaffrann (Eds.), New voices in counseling the gifted (pp. 154–164 ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.Google Scholar
  166. Sands, T., and Howard-Hamilton, M. (1995). Understanding depression among gifted adolescent females: Feminist therapy strategies. Roeper Review, 17, 192–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schwartz, L. L. (1980). Advocacy for the neglected gifted: Females. Gifted Child Quarterly, 24, 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Seeley, K. (1985). Gifted adolescents: Potential and problems. NASSP Bulletin, 69, 75–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Shields, C. M. (1995). A comparison study of student attitudes and perceptions in homogeneous and heterogeneous classrooms. Roeper Review, 17 (4), 234–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Silverman, L. K. (1993a). A developmental model for counseling the gifted. In L. K. Silverman (Ed.), Counseling the gifted and talented (pp. 51–78 ). Denver, CO: Love.Google Scholar
  171. Silverman, L. K. (1993b). The gifted individual. In L. K. Silverman (Ed.), Counseling the gifted and talented (pp. 3–28 ). Denver, CO: Love.Google Scholar
  172. Silverman, L. K. (1994). The moral sensitivity of gifted children and the evolution of society. RoeperReview, 17(2), 110–116.Google Scholar
  173. Silverman, L. K. ( 1995, July). The universal experience of being out-of-sync. Keynote address at the 11th World Congress on Gifted and Talented Children, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  174. Sisk, D. A. (1988). Children at risk: The identification of the gifted among the minority. Gifted Education International, 5, 138–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Smith, A. (1991). Mother of four. Roeper Review, 13(4), 216–217.Google Scholar
  176. Southern, W. T., Jones, E. D., and Fiscus, E. D. (1989). Practitioner objections to the academic acceleration of gifted children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 33 (1), 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sowa, C. J., McIntire, J., May, K. M., and Bland, L. (1994). Social and emotional adjustment themes across gifted children. Roeper Review, 17 (2), 95–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  179. Sternberg, R. J., and Davidson, J. E. (1986). Conceptions of Giftedness: A map of the terrain. In R. J. Sternberg and J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of Giftedness (pp. 3–18 ). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  180. Strop, J. M. (1986). Perceptions of high-achieving gifted and average-achieving adolescents and their parents on counseling needs (Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 1610A.Google Scholar
  181. Stutter, S. L. (1997). Breaking down the barriers: Adventures in teaching single-sex algebra classes. Gifted Child Today, 20, 12–17.Google Scholar
  182. Swiatek, M. A. (1995). An empirical investigation of the social coping strategies used by gifted adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39 (3), 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Terman, L. M. (1925). Mental and physical traits of 1,000 gifted children. Genetic studies of genius (Vol. 1 ). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  184. Terman, L. M., and Oden, M. H. (1947). The gifted child grows up, twenty-five years follow up of a superior group. Genetic studies of genius (Vol. 4 ). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  185. Tomlinson-Keasey, C., and Smith-Winberry, C. (1983). Educational strategies and personality outcomes of gifted and nongifted college students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 27, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. VanTassel-Baska, J. (19 83). The teacher as counselor for the gifted. Teaching Exceptional Children, 15, 145–150.Google Scholar
  187. Walberg, H. J., Singh, R., and Rasher, S. P. (1977). Predictive validity of student perceptions: A cross-cultural replication. American Educational Research Journal, 14, 45–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Walker, A. M., Koestner, R., and Hum, A. (1995). Personality correlates of depressive style in autobiographies of creative achievers. Journal of Creative Behavior, 29(2), 75–95.Google Scholar
  189. Weiner, N. C., and Robinson, S. E. (1986). Cognitive abilities, personality and gender differences in math achievement of gifted adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 30, 83–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Whitmore, J. R. (1980). Giftedness, conflict, and underachievement. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Whitmore, J. R. (1988). Gifted children at risk for learning difficulties. Teaching Exceptional Children, 20, 10–14.Google Scholar
  191. Willings, D. (1985). The specific needs of adults who are gifted. Roeper Review, 8, 35–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wolfle, J. A. (1991). Underachieving gifted males: Are we missing the boat? Roeper Review, 13 (4), 181–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wolleat, R. L. (1979). Guiding the career development of gifted females. In N. Colangelo and R. T. Zaffrann (Eds.). New voices in counseling the gifted (pp. 331–345 ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.Google Scholar
  194. Woodin, M. E (1997). Moving beyond the score: Using PEACEful assessments with gifted children who are anxious or stressed. Gifted Child Today, 20 (1), 44–47.Google Scholar
  195. Yadusky-Holahan, M., and Holahan, W. (1983). The effect of academic stress upon the anxiety and depression levels of gifted high school students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 27, 42–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Ziv, A. (1977). Counselling the intellectually gifted child. Toronto: Guidance Centre, University of Toronto. Zuccone, C. F., and Amerikaner, M. (1986). Counseling gifted underachievers: A family systems approach. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 590–592.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen D. Fiedler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Special EducationNortheastern Illinois UniversityChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations